Skip to content
My WebMD Sign In, Sign Up

Back Pain Health Center

Select An Article
Font Size

Understanding Spinal Disk Problems -- the Basics

What Are Spinal Disk Problems?

Only a person who has experienced a damaged spinal disk understands the agony and helplessness it brings. The pain can be excruciating. Every movement seems to make it worse.

This pain is a warning signal that you should heed. If you take appropriate action, the discomfort usually stops, and the problem can be corrected.

Recommended Related to Back Pain

What's Making Your Back Hurt?

When you've got back pain, one of the best questions you can ask is, "Why is it happening?" That can be the first step to helping the problem. Common causes for back pain include: Muscle and ligament injuries. These are the most common causes of back pain. Shoveling snow or helping a friend move her couch can sometimes overstretch the muscles or ligaments. You can wind up with strains or sprains. Most of these injuries heal in a few days to weeks. Disc injuries...

Read the What's Making Your Back Hurt? article > >

Spinal disks are rubbery pads between the vertebrae, the specialized bones that make up the spinal column. Doctors call them intervertebral disks. Each disk is a flat, circular capsule about an inch in diameter and one-quarter inch thick. They have a tough, fibrous, outer membrane (the annulus fibrosus), and an elastic core (the nucleus pulposus).

The disks are firmly embedded between the vertebrae and are held in place by the ligaments connecting the spinal bones and the surrounding sheaths of muscle. There is really little, if any, room for disks to slip or move. The points on which the vertebrae turn and move are called facet joints, which stick out like arched wings on either side of the rear part of the vertebrae. These facet joints are separate from the discs and keep the vertebrae from bending or twisting excessively, which could damage the spinal cord and the vital network of nerves that runs through the center of the spinal canal formed by the stack of vertebra.

The disk is sometimes described as a shock absorber for the spine, which makes it sound more flexible or pliable than it really is. While the disks do separate the vertebrae and keep them from rubbing together, they are far from spring-like. In children, they are gel- or fluid-filled sacs, but they begin to solidify as part of the normal aging process. By early adulthood, the blood supply to the disk has stopped, the soft inner material has begun to harden, and the disk is less elastic. By middle age, the disks are tough and quite unyielding, with the consistency of a piece of hard rubber. These changes related to aging make the outer protective lining weaker and the disks more prone to injury.

Understanding Spinal Disk Problems -- Herniated Disk

Under stress, a disk's inner material may swell, pushing through its tough outer membrane. The entire disk can  become distorted or bulge in spots. With an injury, all or part of the core material may protrude through the outer casing at a weak spot, pressing against surrounding nerves. If further activity or injury causes the membrane to rupture or tear, the disk material may further extrude, causing pressure on the spinal cord or the nerves that radiate from it. This may result in extreme pain. In the beginning, there may be spasms in the back or neck which will greatly limit your movement. If nerves are affected, you may develop pain that moves into a leg or an arm.

WebMD Medical Reference

Next Article:

Today on WebMD

back pain
Article
woman with lower back pain
Quiz
 
man on cellphone
Slideshow
acupuncture needles in woman's back
Slideshow
 

low back pain
Video
pain in brain and nerves
Slideshow
 
Chronic Pain Healtcheck
Health Check
break at desk
Article
 

Woman holding lower back
Slideshow
Weight Loss Surgery
Slideshow
 
lumbar spine
Slideshow
back pain
Article