Herniated Disc - What Happens
Due to age,
injury, or both, the outer layer of a spinal disc may dry out and
form tiny cracks. Sometimes this causes a:
- Bulging disc. Some of the thick gel in the disc may leak into the cracks. The disc
may begin to bulge out from between the bones of the spine (vertebrae).
- Ruptured disc. The gel breaks through the capsule.
- Free fragment. Fragments of a ruptured disc may
break completely free of the disc and lodge in the
spinal canal .
Any of these stages can cause pressure on a nerve
root and symptoms of pain and numbness.
The cracks in the disc don't repair themselves, but the pain usually fades over time. Often
the body reabsorbs the material from the disc, which helps the pain go away. This process is called resorption. About
half of the people with herniated discs in the low back recover within 1 month. And
within 6 months, most recover.1
It's important to see your doctor if you've had constant or increasing pain for more than 4 to 6 weeks. Getting help early on can lower your chance of having lasting problems, such as the following:
- Pain may come and go. Pain-free periods happen less and less.
- Long-lasting (chronic)
and recurring pain can develop because of continued tissue irritation caused by
the disc pressing on a nerve.
- Chronic pain syndrome can result from having ongoing pain, causing depression,
anxiety, and trouble coping with daily life.
- Symptoms caused by
long-term nerve root compression include loss of agility, strength, or
sensation in one or both legs and feet.