Bipolar II Disorder
What Are the Treatments for Bipolar II Disorder?
Hypomania often masquerades as happiness and relentless optimism. When hypomania is not causing unhealthy behavior, it often may go unnoticed and therefore remain untreated. This is in contrast to full mania, which by definition causes problems in functioning and requires treatment with medications and possibly hospitalizations.
People with bipolar II disorder can benefit from preventive drugs that level out moods over the long term. These prevent the negative consequences of hypomania, and also help to prevent episodes of depression.
Lithium: This simple metal in pill form is highly effective at controlling mood swings (particularly highs) in bipolar disorder. Lithium has been used for more than 60 years to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium can take weeks to work fully, making it better for long-term treatment than for acute hypomanic episodes. Blood levels of lithium and other laboratory tests (such as kidney and thyroid functioning) must be monitored periodically to avoid side effects.
Depakote: This antiseizure drug also works to level out moods. It has a more rapid onset of action than lithium, and it can also be used for prevention.
Lamictal: This drug is approved by the FDA for the maintenance treatment of adults with bipolar disorder. It has been found to help delay bouts of mood episodes of depression, mania, hypomania (a milder form of mania), and mixed episodes in people being treated with standard therapy. It is especially helpful in preventing lows.
Tegretol: This antiseizure drug has been used to treat mania since the 1970s. Its possible value for treating bipolar depression, or preventing future highs and lows, is less well-established. Blood tests to monitor liver functioning and white blood cell counts also are periodically necessary.
Some other antiseizure medications, such as Trileptal, Neurontin and Topamax are also sometimes prescribed as "experimental" (less-proven) treatments for mood symptoms or associated features in people with bipolar disorder.
By definition, hypomanic episodes do not involve psychosis and do not interfere with functioning. Antipsychotic drugs, such as Abilify, Risperdal, Seroquel and others, are nevertheless sometimes used in hypomania and some (notably, Seroquel) are used for depression in bipolar II disorder.
This class of drugs includes Xanax, Ativan, and Valium and is commonly referred to as minor tranquilizers. They are used for short-term control of acute symptoms associated with hypomania such as insomnia or agitation.
Seroquel and Seroquel XR are the only medications FDA-approved specifically for bipolar II depression. Common antidepressants such as Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are also sometimes used in bipolar II depression, and are thought to be less likely to cause or worsen hypomania than is the case in bipolar I disorder. Other medicines sometimes used to treat bipolar II depression include mood stabilizers such as lithium or Depakote, and occasionally Lamictal (although the proven value of Lamictal in bipolar disorder is stronger for preventing relapses than treating acute episodes of bipolar depression). Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, may also help.
Because bipolar II disorder typically involves recurrent episodes, continuous and ongoing treatment with medicines is often recommended for relapse prevention.