On the basis of standard laboratory tests and animal models used to screen anticancer drugs, there is little evidence to support a specific cancer -killing ability for laetrile. These investigations used numerous cultured cell lines and tumor models, and they explored the following issues: (1) whether laetrile, given alone or in combination with other substances, exhibits anticancer activity of any kind; (2) the toxic effects associated with laetrile treatment; (3) the location of laetrile breakdown in the body and how this breakdown occurs; and (4) the route(s) of excretion for laetrile and its breakdown products.
Animal studies of laetrile have used rodents,[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12] dogs,[13,14] Reviewed in  rabbits, Reviewed in  and a cat. Early work led to the hypothesis that enzymes were necessary to release cyanide from amygdalin. When high levels of these enzymes were present, symptoms of cyanide poisoning were more pronounced. Reviewed in  In two studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and published in 1975, various rodent cancers (osteogenic sarcoma, melanoma, carcinosarcoma, lungcarcinoma, and leukemia) were transplanted into rats and mice.[2,3] In both studies, the animals were treated with intraperitoneal injections of amygdalin, with or without the enzyme beta-glucosidase. None of the solid tumors or leukemias investigated responded to amygdalin at any dose tested. No statistically significant increase in animal survival was observed in any of the treatment groups. Similar results were obtained in another study using human breast and coloncancer cells implanted into mice (xenograft models). Amygdalin at every dose level tested produced no response either as a single agent or in combination with beta-glucosidase. It was discovered that animals experienced more side effects when beta-glucosidase was given concurrently (at the same time) with amygdalin, compared with amygdalin alone.[2,3]
This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of 714-X as a treatment for people with cancer. The summary includes a brief history of the development of 714-X; a review of laboratory, animal, and clinical research; and possible side effects of 714-X use.
This summary contains the following key information:
The main ingredient of 714-X is naturally derived camphor that is chemically modified by the introduction of a nitrogen atom.
Additional cell culture and animal studies involving more than a dozen other tumor models have been published.[1,4,5,7,8,10,11,16,17,18,19,20] In one study, preliminary findings by one of the principal investigators that amygdalin inhibited the growth of primary tumors and the incidence of lung metastases in mice bearing spontaneous (not treatment-induced) mammary adenocarcinomas could not be confirmed. However, positive results were obtained in four studies.[11,17,18,20]