After childhood rhabdomyosarcoma has been diagnosed, treatment is based on the stage of the cancer and whether all the cancer was removed by surgery.
The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the tissue or to other parts of the body is called staging. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The doctor will use results of the diagnostic tests to help find out the stage of the disease.
Treatment for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is based on the stage and the amount of cancer that remains after surgery to remove the tumor. The pathologist will use a microscope to check the tissues, including lymph nodes, removed during surgery, and the edges of the areas where the cancer was removed. This is done to see if all the cancer cells were taken out during the surgery.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:
- Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
- Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
- Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.
Staging of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is done in three parts.
Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma is staged by using three different ways to describe the cancer:
- A staging system.
- A grouping system.
- A risk group.
The staging system is based on the size of the tumor, where it is in the body, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body:
In stage 1, the tumor is any size, has not spread to lymph nodes, and is found in only one of the following "favorable" sites:
- Eye or area around the eye.
- Head and neck (but not in the tissue next to the brain and spinal cord).
- Gallbladder and bile ducts.
- In the testes, vagina, or uterus.
Rhabdomyosarcoma that forms in a "favorable" site has a better prognosis. If the site where cancer occurs is not one of the favorable sites listed above, it is said to be an "unfavorable" site.
Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.
In stage 2, cancer is found in an "unfavorable" site (any one area not included in stage 1). The tumor is no larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to lymph nodes.