Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord.
Neuroblastoma often begins in the nerve tissue of the adrenal glands. There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney in the back of the upper abdomen. The adrenal glands make important hormones that help control heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, and the way the body reacts to stress. Neuroblastoma may also begin in the abdomen, in the chest, in nerve tissue near the spine in the neck, or in the spinal cord.
Neuroblastoma may be found in the adrenal glands and paraspinal nerve tissue from the neck to the pelvis.
Neuroblastoma most often begins during early childhood, usually in children younger than 5 years of age. It is found when the tumor begins to grow and cause signs or symptoms. Sometimes it forms before birth and is found during a fetal ultrasound.
By the time neuroblastoma is diagnosed, the cancer has usually metastasized (spread). Neuroblastoma spreads most often to the lymph nodes, bones, bone marrow, liver, and in infants, skin.
See the PDQ summary on Neuroblastoma Screening for more information.
Neuroblastoma is sometimes caused by a gene mutation (change) passed from the parent to the child.
Neuroblastoma is sometimes inherited (passed from the parent to the child). Neuroblastoma that is inherited usually occurs at a younger age than neuroblastoma that is not inherited. In inherited neuroblastoma, more than one tumor may form in the adrenal medulla.
Signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma include bone pain and a lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
The most common signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma are caused by the tumor pressing on nearby tissues as it grows or by cancer spreading to the bone. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by neuroblastoma or by other conditions.
Check with your child's doctor if your child has any of the following:
- Lump in the abdomen, neck, or chest.
- Bulging eyes.
- Dark circles around the eyes ("black eyes").
- Bone pain.
- Swollen stomach and trouble breathing (in infants).
- Painless, bluish lumps under the skin (in infants).
Weakness or paralysis (loss of ability to move a body part).