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Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Neuroblastoma

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A biopsy is done to diagnose neuroblastoma.

Cells and tissues are removed during a biopsy so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The way the biopsy is done depends on where the tumor is in the body. Sometimes the whole tumor is removed at the same time the biopsy is done.

The following tests may be done on the tissue that is removed:

  • Cytogenetic analysis: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under a microscope to look for certain changes in the chromosomes.
  • Light and electron microscopy: A laboratory test in which cells in a sample of tissue are viewed under regular and high-powered microscopes to look for certain changes in the cells.
  • Immunohistochemistry: A test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens in a sample of tissue. The antibody is usually linked to a radioactive substance or a dye that causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test may be used to tell the difference between different types of cancer.
  • MYC-N amplification study: A laboratory study in which tumor or bone marrow cells are checked for the level of MYC-N. MYC-N is important for cell growth. A higher level of MYC-N (more than 10 copies of the gene) is called MYC-N amplification. Neuroblastoma with MYC-N amplification is more likely to spread in the body and less likely to respond to treatment.

Children who are 6 months old or younger may not need a biopsy or surgery to remove the tumor because the tumor may disappear without treatment.

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • Age of the child at diagnosis.
  • Stage of the cancer.
  • Tumor histology (the shape, function, and structure of the tumor cells).
  • Whether there is cancer in the lymph nodes on the same side of the body as the cancer or whether there is cancer in the lymph nodes on the opposite side of the body.
  • How the tumor responds to treatment.
  • Whether there are certain changes in the chromosomes.
  • How much time passed between diagnosis and when the cancer recurred (for recurrent cancer).
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