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Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

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Magnitude of Effect: Risk of cancer may be reduced; effect on cancer mortality is not known.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trials of H. pylori eradication.
Internal Validity: Good.
Consistency: Good.
External Validity: Good.

Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce the Risk of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

Diet

Based on fair evidence, excessive salt intake and deficient dietary consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Dietary intake of vitamin C contained in vegetables, fruits, and other foods of plant origin is associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer. Diets high in whole-grain cereals, carotenoids, allium compounds, and green tea are also associated with a reduced risk of this cancer. However, it is uncertain if changing one's diet to include more vegetables, fruits, and whole grains would reduce the risk of gastric cancer.

Magnitude of Effect: Small, difficult to determine.

Study Design: Cohort or case-control studies.
Internal Validity: Good.
Consistency: Small number of studies.
External Validity: Fair (populations vary greatly in their underlying nutritional status).

References:

  1. Ming S, Goldman H: Gastric polyps: a histogenetic classification and its relation to carcinoma. Cancer 18(6): 721-726, 1965.
  2. Utsunomiya J, Maki T, Iwama T, et al.: Gastric lesion of familial polyposis coli. Cancer 34 (3): 745-54, 1974.
  3. Aarnio M, Salovaara R, Aaltonen LA, et al.: Features of gastric cancer in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Int J Cancer 74 (5): 551-5, 1997.
  4. Kurtz RC, Sherlock P: The diagnosis of gastric cancer. Semin Oncol 12 (1): 11-8, 1985.
  5. Boeing H: Epidemiological research in stomach cancer: progress over the last ten years. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 117 (2): 133-43, 1991.
  6. Pisters PWT, Kelsen DP, Tepper JE: Cancer of the stomach. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. Vols. 1 & 2. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008, pp 1043-1079.
  7. Crew KD, Neugut AI: Epidemiology of gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 12 (3): 354-62, 2006.
  8. Leung WK, Wu MS, Kakugawa Y, et al.: Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice. Lancet Oncol 9 (3): 279-87, 2008.
  9. Parsonnet J, Hansen S, Rodriguez L, et al.: Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N Engl J Med 330 (18): 1267-71, 1994.
  10. Ando T, Goto Y, Maeda O, et al.: Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 12 (2): 181-6, 2006.
  11. Aromaa A, Kosunen TU, Knekt P, et al.: Circulating anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin A antibodies and low serum pepsinogen I level are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Am J Epidemiol 144 (2): 142-9, 1996.
  12. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans .: A review of human carcinogens--Part B: biological agents. Volume 100. Lyon, France: IARC Press, 2011.
  13. Bouvard V, Baan R, Straif K, et al.: A review of human carcinogens--Part B: biological agents. Lancet Oncol 10 (4): 321-2, 2009.
  14. Hansson LE, Nyrén O, Hsing AW, et al.: The risk of stomach cancer in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer disease. N Engl J Med 335 (4): 242-9, 1996.
  15. Ladeiras-Lopes R, Pereira AK, Nogueira A, et al.: Smoking and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 19 (7): 689-701, 2008.
  16. González CA, Pera G, Agudo A, et al.: Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 107 (4): 629-34, 2003.
  17. La Torre G, Chiaradia G, Gianfagna F, et al.: Smoking status and gastric cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis of case-control studies published in the past ten years. Tumori 95 (1): 13-22, 2009 Jan-Feb.
  18. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.: The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004. Available online. Last accessed January 31, 2013.
  19. Fuccio L, Zagari RM, Eusebi LH, et al.: Meta-analysis: can Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment reduce the risk for gastric cancer? Ann Intern Med 151 (2): 121-8, 2009.
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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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