Discuss the risks and benefits of use for epoetin alfa with your doctor, as this medication may rarely cause very serious (possibly fatal) side effects, including blood clots. It will be very important to keep all laboratory test appointments, as your doctor will need to carefully check your red blood cell tests (hemoglobin). The lowest effective dose of this medication should be used.
When used to treat anemia related to cancer, this medication may also increase the risk of death and/or cause your tumor to grow faster. Therefore, your doctor should have special training in order to prescribe this medication and be able to discuss with you the risks and benefits of this medication. This medication should be stopped after completing a treatment course of chemotherapy as directed by your doctor.Who should not take epoetin alfa injection?
This medication is used to treat anemia (low red blood cell count) in people with long-term serious kidney disease (chronic renal failure), people receiving zidovudine to treat HIV, and people receiving chemotherapy for certain types of cancer (non-myeloid cancers). It may also be used in anemic patients to reduce the need for blood transfusions before certain planned surgeries that have a high risk of blood loss (usually combined with the "blood thinner" warfarin). Epoetin alfa helps to reverse anemia. It works by signaling the bone marrow to make more red blood cells. This medication is very similar to the natural substance in your body (erythropoietin) that prevents anemia.
Read the Medication Guide and Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start using this medication and each time you get a refill. Learn all preparation and usage instructions in the product package. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
This medication is given as an injection under the skin or into a vein, usually 1 to 3 times a week or as directed by your doctor. Hemodialysis patients should receive this medication by injection into a vein.
Do not shake this medication. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. If you are injecting this medication under the skin, change the location of the injection site every time to avoid problem areas under the skin.
Learn how to store and discard needles and medical supplies safely. Consult your pharmacist.
The dosage is based on your medical condition, weight, and response to treatment. Blood tests should be performed frequently to check how well this medication is working and to determine the correct dose for you. Consult your doctor for more details.
Do not increase your dose or use this medication more often than directed. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, use it on the same day(s) of the week as directed. It may help to mark your calendar with a reminder.
It may take 2 to 6 weeks before your red blood cell count increases. Tell your doctor if your symptoms do not improve or if they worsen.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
Epoetin alfa may sometimes cause or worsen high blood pressure, especially in patients with long-term kidney failure. This effect may be caused by the number of red blood cells increasing too quickly, usually within the first 3 months of starting treatment. If you have high blood pressure, it should be adequately controlled before beginning treatment with this medication. Your blood pressure should be checked frequently. Ask your doctor if you should learn how to monitor your own blood pressure. If high blood pressure develops or worsens, follow your doctor's instructions about diet changes and starting or adjusting your high blood pressure medication. Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and further kidney problems. Keep all laboratory appointments to have your blood count (hemoglobin) tested regularly to reduce the chance of this side effect.
Get medical help right away if you have any very serious side effects, including: seizures.
This medication may rarely cause blood clots. Get medical help right away if you notice any of the following rare but very serious side effects: pain/redness/swelling/weakness of the arms or legs, calf pain/swelling that is warm to the touch, new/worsening shortness of breath, coughing up blood, sudden vision changes, slurred speech, confusion, weakness on one side of the body, sudden severe headache, chest/jaw/left arm pain, fainting, blood clots in your hemodialysis vascular access site.
Rarely, this medication may suddenly stop working well after a period of time because your body may make antibodies that reduce the effectiveness of epoetin alfa, and a very serious anemia can result. Tell your doctor immediately if symptoms of anemia return (e.g., increased tiredness, low energy, pale skin color, shortness of breath).
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.
In the US -
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.
Before using epoetin alfa, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other drugs that cause more red blood cells to be made (e.g., darbepoetin alfa); or to products containing human albumin; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: high blood pressure, blood disorders (e.g., sickle cell anemia, white blood cell or platelet problems, bone marrow problems), bleeding/clotting problems, blood vessel problems (e.g., stroke), heart problems (e.g., angina, heart failure), seizure disorder, a certain metabolic disorder (porphyria), certain vitamin deficiencies (folic acid, vitamin B12).
Infrequently, patients with long-term kidney failure on dialysis may be at increased risk of seizures during the first 3 months of treatment with this medication, possibly caused by the number of red blood cells increasing too quickly. Therefore, these patients should use caution and avoid activities such as driving or using machinery during this period. Limit alcoholic beverages because alcohol may also increase the risk of seizures.
Some forms of this medication are made from human blood. Even though the blood is carefully tested and this medication goes through a special manufacturing process, there is an extremely small chance that you may get infections from the medication (for example, virus infections such as hepatitis). Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).
During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. In some women of child-bearing age, menstrual periods have resumed with epoetin alfa treatment. Therefore, it may be possible to become pregnant while using this medication. Discuss the need for birth control with your doctor.
It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.
Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.
If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.
Do not share this medication with others.
Laboratory and/or medical tests (e.g., complete blood count that includes hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count) must be performed regularly to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.
Blood tests for your iron levels will also be performed and you may be prescribed iron supplements to take. Your doctor may recommend that you eat a well-balanced diet rich in iron (e.g., raisins, figs, meat, eggs, vegetables, iron-fortified cereals). Follow your doctor's instructions and dietary recommendations.
If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.
Store the medication in the refrigerator between 36-46 degrees F (2-8 degrees C). Do not freeze. Let the medication come to room temperature before using. For the single-use vials, discard any unused medication immediately. For the multi-use vials, store opened vials in the refrigerator and discard any unused medication after 3 weeks. Keep all medications away from children and pets.
Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.
Information last revised January 2014. Copyright(c) 2014 First Databank, Inc.
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