Crohn’s disease is a chronic, or long-term, illness. With Crohn’s disease, the intestine, or bowel, becomes inflamed and ulcerated, or marked with sores. Along with ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease is one of a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Crohn’s disease usually affects the lower part of the small intestine, which is called the ileum. It can, though, occur in any part of the large or small intestine, stomach, or esophagus. It can even occur in the mouth. Crohn’s disease can happen at any age. It’s most common, though, in people who are between the ages of 15 and 30. Children and teens with Crohn’s disease face unique challenges. Crohn’s disease can stunt growth, weaken bones, and delay puberty.
Crohn's disease can disrupt the normal function of the bowel in a number of ways. The bowel tissue may:
Swell, thicken, or form a stricture (scar tissue), leading to an obstruction (blockage) of the passageway inside the bowel
Develop ulcers in the deep layers of the bowel wall
Lose its ability to absorb nutrients from digested foods (malabsorption), especially in the ileum where vitamin B12 and bile acids are absorbed
Develop abnormal passageways (fistulas) from one part of the bowel to another or from the bowel to nearby tissues
What are the symptoms of Crohn’s disease in children and teens?
The symptoms of Crohn's disease depend on where the disease occurs in the bowel. They also depend on its severity. In general, symptoms can include:
Feeling of mass or fullness in the lower right abdomen
Children and teens with Crohn's disease have periods of severe symptoms followed by periods of no symptoms. The period with no symptoms is called remission, and it can last for weeks or years. There is no way to know when a remission will occur or when symptoms will return.
Other symptoms can develop, depending on complications related to the disease. For instance, a person with a fistula -- abnormal passageway -- in the rectal area may have pain and discharge around the rectum. Other complications from Crohn’s disease include:
Inflammation (swelling) of the eyes and mouth
Skin rashes or ulcers
What causes Crohn’s disease in children and teens?
The cause of Crohn's disease is not known. It is likely that Crohn's is an inherited disease that causes an abnormal response of the immune system in the gastrointestinal tract.
People who have a relative with Crohn’s disease are more likely to develop the disease themselves. People of Jewish ancestry also have a greater risk for the condition. Still, the risk of getting Crohn's disease is low.