Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) increases your risk
of infertility, usually from scarring in and around the
fallopian tubes. Scarring, a result of
inflammation, can block or twist the tubes so that
neither sperm nor eggs can get through the tubes.
Tubal infertility develops in about 8% of women
who have had PID once (compared with 1% of women who have never had
Infertility risk doubles or triples
with each additional episode of PID.2
Most women who have blocked fallopian tubes do not remember ever
having symptoms of PID. The evaluation and tests to diagnose infertility may
show signs of a previous PID infection.
Stopping fertility treatments -- whether fertility drugs or an assisted reproductive technology -- can be a major issue for couples.
For couples that don't define the ''enough is enough'' point before embarking on the journey to pregnancy, these treatments may become addictive, with each new cycle bringing a flush of optimism. "Just one more cycle and then we'll stop" can go on for longer than the recommended cycle-length of the fertility drugs, and in some cases, for longer than two years --...
Paavonen J, et al. (2008). Pelvic inflammatory disease. In KK Holmes et al., eds., Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 4th ed., pp. 1017-1050. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Soper DE (2010). Infections of the female pelvis. In Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 1511-1519. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
Primary Medical Reviewer
Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer
Kirtly Jones, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology
November 23, 2010
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
November 23, 2010
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