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Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Overview

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Overdiagnosis

Based on solid evidence, some lung cancers detected by screening chest x-ray and/or sputum cytology appear to represent overdiagnosed cancer. Because of comorbidities, harms of diagnostic procedures and treatment may be most frequent among long-term and/or heavy smokers.

Magnitude of Effect: When calculated as the ratio of all lung cancer cases in the intervention arm to those in the control arm (percent excess cases), the magnitude of overdiagnosis ranges from 6% to 17% .

  • Study Design: Randomized controlled trials.
  • Internal Validity: Good.
  • Consistency: Good.
  • External Validity: Good.

References:

  1. Oken MM, Hocking WG, Kvale PA, et al.: Screening by chest radiograph and lung cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) randomized trial. JAMA 306 (17): 1865-73, 2011.
  2. Marcus PM, Bergstralh EJ, Zweig MH, et al.: Extended lung cancer incidence follow-up in the Mayo Lung Project and overdiagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 98 (11): 748-56, 2006.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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