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Pneumonia - References


  1. Niederman MS (2004). Pneumonia, including community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. In JD Crapo et al., eds., Baum's Textbook of Pulmonary Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 424–454. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  2. File TM Jr (2003). Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet, 362(9400): 1991–2001.

  3. Laheij RJF, et al. (2004). Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. JAMA, 292(16): 1955–1960.

  4. Herzig SJ, et al. (2009). Acid-suppressive medication use and the risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia. JAMA, 301(20): 2120–2128.

  5. Loeb M (2010). Community-acquired pneumonia, search date January 2010. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence:

  6. Moberley SA, et al. (2008). Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1). Oxford: Update Software.

  7. Maruyama T, et al. (2010). Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: Double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. BMJ. Published online March 8, 2010 (doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1004).

  8. Arnold FW, et al. (2009). Improving outcomes in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia by adhering to national guidelines: Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization International cohort study results. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16): 1515–1524.

  9. McCabe C, et al. (2009). Guideline-concordant therapy and reduced mortality and length of stay in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: Playing by the rules. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16): 1525–1531.

Other Works Consulted

  • Murray MT (2013). Bronchitis and pneumonia. In JE Pizzorno Jr, MT Murray, eds., Textbook of Natural Medicine, 4th ed., pp. 1271–1276. St. Louis: Elsevier.

  • Torres A, et al. (2010). Pyogenic bacterial pneumonia and lung abscess. In R Mason et al., eds., Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 5th ed., vol. 1, pp. 699–740. Philadelphia: Saunders.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). MMWR, 59(34): 1102–1106. Also available online:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children: Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 59(RR-11): 1–18. Also available online:

  • Fiebach NH, Barr RG (2007). Respiratory tract infections. In NH Fiebach et al., eds., Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. 7th ed., pp. 474–500. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  • Mandell LA, et al. (2007). Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(Suppl 2): S27-S72.

  • Musher DM (2010). Streptococcus pneumoniae. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2623–2642. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: September 09, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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