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Pneumonia - References


  1. Niederman MS (2004). Pneumonia, including community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. In JD Crapo et al., eds., Baum's Textbook of Pulmonary Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 1, pp. 424-454. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  2. File TM Jr (2003). Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet, 362(9400): 1991-2001.

  3. Laheij RJF, et al. (2004). Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. JAMA, 292(16): 1955-1960.

  4. Herzig SJ, et al. (2009). Acid-suppressive medication use and the risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia. JAMA, 301(20): 2120-2128.

  5. Loeb M (2010). Community-acquired pneumonia, search date January 2010. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence:

  6. Moberley SA, et al. (2008). Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(1). Oxford: Update Software.

  7. Maruyama T, et al. (2010). Efficacy of 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in preventing pneumonia and improving survival in nursing home residents: Double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. BMJ. Published online March 8, 2010 (doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1004).

  8. Arnold FW, et al. (2009). Improving outcomes in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia by adhering to national guidelines: Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization International cohort study results. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16): 1515-1524.

  9. McCabe C, et al. (2009). Guideline-concordant therapy and reduced mortality and length of stay in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: Playing by the rules. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169(16): 1525-1531.

Other Works Consulted

  • Murray MT (2013). Bronchitis and pneumonia. In JE Pizzorno Jr, MT Murray, eds., Textbook of Natural Medicine, 4th ed., pp. 1271-1276. St. Louis: Elsevier.

  • Torres A, et al. (2010). Pyogenic bacterial pneumonia and lung abscess. In R Mason et al., eds., Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 5th ed., vol. 1, pp. 699-740. Philadelphia: Saunders.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). MMWR, 59(34): 1102-1106. Also available online:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Prevention of pneumococcal disease among infants and children: Use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 59(RR-11): 1-18. Also available online:

  • Fiebach NH, Barr RG (2007). Respiratory tract infections. In NH Fiebach et al., eds., Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. 7th ed., pp. 474-500. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

  • Mandell LA, et al. (2007). Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(Suppl 2): S27-S72.

  • Musher DM (2010). Streptococcus pneumoniae. In GL Mandell et al., eds., Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2623-2642. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

    WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

    Last Updated: September 09, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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