Hard Truth About Surviving Bitter Winter Weather
Doctors offer practical advice for dealing with record-breaking temperatures
"If any of these symptoms become noticeable, you should protect the exposed skin, get to a warm place and seek immediate medical treatment," he said.
Some people are especially vulnerable to the dangers of cold weather. They include the elderly, those with diabetes, heart, or circulatory problems, and people who use alcohol, caffeine or other drugs that inhibit the body's ability to protect itself against the cold.
Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency medicine physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City, said there are several key factors that determine how long people can endure extremely cold temperatures. Those factors are wind speed, how well a person is dressed, and if their skin is wet or moist.
Shoveling snow or working in extremely cold temperatures can be dangerous because sweat decreases the ability of clothes to provide needed insulation.
Dressing in layers may help. Use the "three-layers guideline" to provide more effective insulation. The first layer helps to drain moisture or sweat. The second layer serves as insulation, while a third sturdy outer layer can help to block out the cold, Glatter said.
If you think you or another person is suffering from frostbite, get to a health-care professional as fast as possible or call 911. If you can't get immediate medical help for at least two hours, re-warm the affected area with warm water -- but it shouldn't be boiling or excessively hot. And drink warm, non-alcoholic fluids, Glatter said.
Cindy Lord is director of the physician assistant program at the Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, Conn. She likes to use the acronym C.O.L.D. when advising people on dealing with the cold.
Cover up: Wear a hat or other protective covering to prevent body heat loss from your head, face and neck.
Overexertion: Avoid activities that cause you to sweat a lot. This can cause you to lose body heat more quickly.
Layers: Dress in layers. Wear loose-fitting, layered, lightweight clothing. Wool, silk or polypropylene inner layers hold body heat better than cotton.
Dry: Stay as dry as possible. Get out of wet clothing as soon as possible. Keep your hands and feet dry.