Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Hair Loss Health Center

Font Size

Alopecia Areata - Topic Overview

What is alopecia areata?

Alopecia areata is a type of hair loss that occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks hair follicles camera.gif, which is where hair growth begins. The damage to the follicle is usually not permanent. Experts do not know why the immune system attacks the follicles. Alopecia areata is most common in people younger than 20, but children and adults of any age may be affected. Women and men are affected equally.

What happens in alopecia areata?

Alopecia areata usually begins when clumps of hair fall out, resulting in totally smooth, round hairless patches on the scalp. In some cases the hair may become thinner without noticeable patches of baldness, or it may grow and break off, leaving short stubs (called "exclamation point" hair). In rare cases, complete loss of scalp hair and body hair occurs. The hair loss often comes and goes-hair will grow back over several months in one area but will fall out in another area.

When alopecia areata results in patches of hair loss, the hair usually grows back in a few months.1 Although the new hair is usually the same color and texture as the rest of the hair, it sometimes is fine and white.

About 10% of people with this condition may never regrow hair.2 You are more likely to have permanent hair loss if you:

  • Have a family history of the condition.
  • Have the condition at a young age (before puberty) or for longer than 1 year.
  • Have another autoimmune disease.
  • Are prone to allergies (atopy).
  • Have extensive hair loss.
  • Have abnormal color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails.

Because hair is an important part of appearance, hair loss can result in feeling unattractive.

In some people with alopecia areata, the fingernails and toenails become pitted-they look as if a pin had made many tiny dents in them. They may also look like sandpaper.

Alopecia areata cannot be "cured" but it can be treated. Most people who have one episode will have more episodes of hair loss.

    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    hair in hairbrush
    Ways to go about it naturally.
    Young woman with thick curly hair
    Causes and solutions.
    man with thinning hair
    How to keep the hair you have.
    Closeup of Hairbrush with Hair Loss
    Understand the basics.
    Mens Hair Loss When To Start Treatment
    A Dermatologist Talks About Hair Loss
    Rogaine And Propecia For Hair Loss
    Woman looking at thinning hair in hand mirror
    Balding man in mirror
    Close up of comb in woman's hair
    Young woman with thick curly hair
    hair problems