Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - Cause
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is caused by bacteria entering the reproductive organs through the cervix. When the cervix is infected, bacteria from the vagina can more easily get into and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Sexually transmitted infections
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is
usually caused by a
sexually transmitted infection (STI) that infects the
When the cervix, which connects the upper vagina to the uterus, is infected with an STI, other bacteria
in the vagina can more easily get into and infect the uterus and fallopian tubes.
The most common STIs that cause PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia.
PID caused by chlamydia may have milder symptoms or no
symptoms (compared with PID caused by gonorrhea), which can delay
diagnosis. PID caused by chlamydia is most
common among teenagers and young adult women.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a drop in the
vagina's "good" organisms and an increase in its potentially "bad" organisms.
When this happens and the problem organisms spread into the uterus and
fallopian tubes, PID can result. BV is not sexually transmitted.
PID and intrauterine devices (IUDs)
IUD while there is infection in the
vagina or the
cervix can cause PID. This is especially likely if bacterial vaginosis or an STI is present at the time of insertion.