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American Diabetes Association: “Glycemic Index and Diabetes.”
European Journal of Nutrition: “The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease.”
Garvan Institute: “Why artificial sweeteners can increase appetite.”
LiveScience: “Why Fructose-Laden Drinks May Leave You Wanting More,” “Stealth Assault on Health: Beverages Pack Calorie Punch,” “Eating Fast May Make You Fat.”
National Institutes of Health: “Increasing the number of masticatory cycles is associated with reduced appetite and altered postprandial plasma concentrations of gut hormones, insulin and glucose,” “The effects of equal-energy portions of different breads on blood glucose levels, feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake,” “Effects of Soft Drink Consumption on Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” “Does alcohol stimulate appetite and energy intake?” “The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake,” “Reducing Childhood Obesity by Eliminating 100% Fruit Juice,” “Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome,” “Effect of variety and cooking method on resistant starch content of white rice and subsequent postprandial glucose response and appetite in humans,” “Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain,” “Increasing the number of masticatory cycles is associated with reduced appetite and altered postprandial plasma concentrations of gut hormones, insulin and glucose.”
Nutrition Journal: “Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup.”
Pediatrics: “Fruit Juice Intake Predicts Increased Adiposity Gain in Children From Low-Income Families: Weight Status-by-Environment Interaction.”
SELFNutritionData: “Fullness Factor,” “Glycemic Index.”
United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Reviewed by Maryann Tomovich Jacobsen, MS, RD on November 14, 2016
This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
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