WebMD News Brief

COVID-19 Antibodies Fade Quickly, U.S. Study Says

nurse drawing blood

July 23, 2020 -- People who recover from COVID-19 seem to develop antibodies that confer some type of immunity, but the antibody levels drop quickly, according to a new report from UCLA.

The research team published a short letter on Tuesday in the New England Journal of Medicine, adding their observations to the recent conversation about COVID-19 antibodies and the rapid decay in levels.

“The results call for caution regarding antibody-based ‘immunity passports,’ herd immunity, and perhaps vaccine durability, especially in light of short-lived immunity against common human coronaviruses,” they wrote.

The team studied antibody levels in 34 people who previously had COVID-19. Between ages 21-68, their average age was 43, and most had mild illness. Two people received supplemental oxygen.

The research team took two measurements — one a little over a month after the onset of symptoms and the other about three months after symptoms began. So far, researchers have reported that antibodies form within about 2 weeks of symptoms starting.

All of the participants had varying levels of antibodies, and some levels declined more rapidly than others. The average decline corresponded with a half-life of about 73 days, they wrote.

The study period was 90 days, so additional studies are needed to see the long-term effects, they added, but it’s likely that antibodies continue to decline after that.

Ultimately, antibody levels likely don’t last for a long time after a COVID-19 infection, especially for those who have a mild illness, which makes up the majority of cases. This aligns with other recent studies, they wrote.

At the same time, a decline in antibodies doesn’t necessarily mean that protection disappears entirely or that a vaccine won’t be effective. Certain immune system cells store information about viruses to create new antibodies if needed, according to The Associated Press.

“This shouldn’t dissuade us from pursuing a vaccine,” Buddy Creech, an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, told the news outlet. “Antibodies are only a part of the story.”

WebMD Health News Brief Reviewed by Brunilda Nazario, MD on July 23, 2020

Sources

New England Journal of Medicine, “Rapid Decay of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Persons with Mild Covid-19.”

Associated Press, “Virus antibodies fade fast but not necessarily protection.”

© 2020 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.