Barbiturate Misuse Overview
Barbiturates are a group of drugs in the class of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics, which generally describes their sleep-inducing and anxiety-decreasing effects.
Barbiturates can be extremely dangerous because the correct dose is difficult to predict. Even a slight overdose can cause coma or death. Barbiturates are also addictive and can cause a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome.
History of use and abuse
- Barbiturates were first used in medicine in the early 1900s and became popular in the 1960s and 1970s as treatment for anxiety, insomnia, or seizure disorders. They evolved into recreational drugs that some people used to reduce inhibitions, decrease anxiety, and to treat unwanted side effects of illicit drugs.
- Barbiturate use and misuse have declined dramatically since the 1970s, mainly because a safer group of sedative-hypnotics called benzodiazepines is being prescribed. Benzodiazepine use has largely replaced barbiturates in the medical profession, with the exception of a few specific indications. Doctors are prescribing barbiturates less, and the illegal use of barbiturates has also substantially declined, although barbiturate misuse among teenagers may be on the rise compared with the early 1990s. Addiction to barbiturates, however, is uncommon today.
Types of barbiturates
- There are many different barbiturates. The primary difference among them is how long their effects last. The effects of some of the long-acting drugs may last up to 2 days. Others are very short-acting. Their effects last only a few minutes.
- Barbiturates can be injected into the veins or muscles, but they are usually taken in pill form. The street names of commonly misused barbiturates describe the desired effect of the drug or the color and markings on the actual pill.
|Generic Name||Street Name|
|Amobarbital||Downers, blue heavens, blue velvet, blue devils|
|Pentobarbital||Nembies, yellow jackets, abbots, Mexican yellows|
|Phenobarbital||Purple hearts, goof balls|
|Secobarbital||Reds, red birds, red devils, lilly, F-40s, pinks, pink ladies, seggy|
|Tuinal||Rainbows, reds and blues, tooies, double trouble, gorilla pills, F-66s|
Barbiturate Misuse Causes
Although the medical use of barbiturates has declined since the 1970s, high school surveys suggest misuse has been rising over the last 10 years. A common reason to misuse barbiturates is to counteract the symptoms of other drugs; the barbiturates ("downers") counteract the excitement and alertness obtained from stimulant drugs like cocaine and methamphetamines.
- Today’s drug misusers may be too young to remember the death and dangerous effects barbiturates caused in the 1970s, so they underestimate the risks of using them.
- Barbiturates are also commonly used in suicide attempts.
Barbiturate Misuse Symptoms
In general, barbiturates can be thought of as so-called brain relaxers. Alcohol is also a brain relaxer. The effects of barbiturates and alcohol are very similar, and when combined can be lethal. Pain medicines, sleeping pills, and antihistamines also cause symptoms similar to those of barbiturates.
People who misuse barbiturates use them to obtain a “high,” which is described as being similar to alcohol intoxication, or to counteract the effects of stimulant drugs.
- In small doses, the person who misuses barbiturates feels drowsy, disinhibited, and intoxicated.
- In higher doses, the user staggers as if drunk, develops slurred speech, and is confused.
- At even higher doses, the person is unable to be aroused (coma) and may stop breathing. Death is possible.
It is important to note that the difference between the dose causing drowsiness and one causing death may be small. In the medical profession, this difference is called a narrow therapeutic index, which is the ratio of a drug's toxic dose to its therapeutically desirable dose. This is the reason why barbiturates are dangerous. It is also why barbiturates are not often prescribed today.
In addition to having a narrow therapeutic index, barbiturates are also addictive. If taken daily for longer than about 1 month, the brain develops a need for the barbiturate, which causes severe symptoms if the drug is withheld.
Symptoms of withdrawal
Symptoms of withdrawal or abstinence include tremors, difficulty sleeping, and agitation. These symptoms can become worse, resulting in life-threatening symptoms, including hallucinations, high temperature, and seizures.
Pregnant women taking barbiturates can cause their baby to become addicted, and the newborn may have withdrawal symptoms.
When to Seek Medical Care
The doctor cannot give appropriate treatment for barbiturate misuse over the telephone. Observation at a hospital emergency department is necessary.
If you believe someone has taken barbiturates inappropriately, take them to a hospital emergency department for evaluation by a doctor. Soon after taking barbiturates, a person may only be drowsy or seem intoxicated, but more serious symptoms can develop quickly and unpredictably. Learn more about the consequences of untreated substance abuse.
- If the person is drowsy or you are unable to arouse the person (if they seem to be in a coma), call 911 for emergency medical transport and immediate treatment in the ambulance.
- Bring any leftover pills, pill bottles, or other medicines the person may have taken to the hospital.
Exams and Tests
A urine test can readily identify barbiturate use. Diagnosis in a hospital emergency department, however, concentrates on diagnosing other potential reasons for the person to be drowsy, such as other drugs taken, head injury, stroke, infection, or shock. These diagnostic efforts take place while the person is being treated.
In general, the person will have an IV started and blood will be drawn. An ECG (electrocardiogram) will be performed to evaluate the person’s heart rhythm. Other diagnostic efforts depend on the specific situation.
Barbiturate Misuse Treatment - Self-Care at Home
There is no home treatment for barbiturate misuse. If you believe someone has taken barbiturates inappropriately, take them to the hospital for evaluation by a doctor.
Barbiturates have a narrow therapeutic index and can cause coma or death if taken inappropriately. This is especially true in children and in elderly persons.
The treatment of barbiturate abuse or overdose is generally supportive. The amount of support required depends on the person’s symptoms.
- If the person is drowsy but awake and can swallow and breathe without difficulty, the treatment may consist of just watching the person closely.
- If the person is not breathing, a breathing machine is used to ensure the person can breathe well until the drugs have worn off.
- Most people receive a liquid form of activated charcoal to bind to any drugs in their stomach. This may be done by placing a tube into the stomach (through the nose or mouth) or by having the person drink it.
- Most people are admitted to the hospital or are observed in the emergency department for a number of hours, and sometimes may need to be admitted to the hospital for further monitoring and treatment. Other treatments depend on the specific situation.
Next Steps - Follow-up
Although rare, anyone who is addicted to barbiturates requires prolonged therapy to avoid the dangerous symptoms of withdrawal. Addicted individuals are treated with decreasing doses of barbiturates (called detoxification) until they are drug-free. For more information, see drug dependence and abuse.
With aggressive treatment in the hospital, most people survive. But even with intensive therapy, some who overdose will die.
A person’s outcome after misusing barbiturates depends on a number of factors, including:
- Other drugs ingested
- Other medical problems the person has
- How quickly the person received medical attention
- Which barbiturate the person abused (see overdose)
For More Information
For more information about barbiturates and misuse, visit eMedicine’s patient education articles "Drug Overdose," "Drug Dependence and Abuse," and "Substance Abuse."
MedlinePlus, Barbiturate intoxication and overdose
Synonyms and Keywords
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