What Is Pregnancy Acne?
Pregnancy acne is a skin breakout in pregnant people, possibly caused by hormone changes. Acne is common during pregnancy. In fact, more than half of pregnant people can expect to develop acne. In some cases, the acne may be severe.
Pregnancy Acne Causes
The main cause of acne when you're pregnant is the increased hormone levels in the first trimester. The higher level boosts your skin's production of natural oils. It's hard to predict who will develop pregnancy acne. You have a higher risk, though, if you have a history of acne or have acne flares at the start of your menstrual cycle. If you don’t get acne during the first trimester, it's unlikely you'll have breakouts that are out of the ordinary during the second or third trimesters.
Managing acne when you're pregnant can be tricky. That's because many prescription and over-the-counter treatments come with a high risk of birth defects. In general, you should avoid any medication that has even a remote chance of harming your baby.
Pregnancy Acne Treatments
Pregnancy acne is a natural condition. It usually goes away when your hormone levels return to normal. The safest thing to do is to avoid any prescription acne medications or over-the-counter chemical spot treatments. Instead, you can rely on drug-free home remedies. But before starting any acne treatment when you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant, talk with your doctor about what's best -- and safest -- for you.
Pregnancy Acne: Unsafe Treatments
Isotretinoin is an oral medication that has revolutionized the way severe acne is treated. But it's especially dangerous when you’re pregnant. That's because the drug can cause serious birth defects.
Any patient who takes isotretinoin, as well as any doctor who prescribes it, pharmacy that dispenses it, and wholesaler who distributes it, must enroll in a special program that's part of a risk-management program to prevent pregnancy and birth defects.
Because the risks are so high, women of childbearing age who take the drug need to be on two forms of birth control starting at least 1 month before they begin treatment. They also need to stay on two forms of birth control for at least 1 month after treatment ends. Also, women must have pregnancy tests before, during, and after treatment.
Other prescription acne treatments that can cause birth defects include:
- Hormone therapy. This includes the hormone estrogen and the anti-androgens flutamide and spironolactone.
- Oral tetracyclines. These include antibiotics such as doxycycline, minocycline, and tetracycline, which can inhibit bone growth and discolor permanent teeth.
- Topical retinoids such as adapalene (Differin), tazarotene (Tazorac), and tretinoin (Retin-A). These products are similar to isotretinoin and should be avoided during pregnancy. Although studies show that the amount of these medications absorbed through the skin is low, there’s a concern they could pose an increased risk of birth defects. Products are required to carry a warning that states it’s unknown if these medications can harm a developing baby or a child that is being breastfed.
For the same reasons, some experts also recommend against using topical treatments containing salicylic acid. This is an ingredient found in many over-the-counter products.
Other Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy
Some experts recommend topical prescription products containing either azelaic acid or erythromycin. Other options include over-the-counter products that contain either benzoyl peroxide or glycolic acid. Only about 5% of the active medication applied to the skin is absorbed into the body. So it's believed that such medications would not pose an increased risk of birth defects.
But it’s important to remember that many topical medications have not been adequately studied in pregnancy. So again, be sure to talk to your doctor before you start any acne treatment.
Pregnancy Acne Prevention
Pregnancy acne is a natural condition that usually resolves after childbirth. So the safest course of action is good skin care. Here are some drug-free ways to treat pregnancy acne:
- Limit washing to two times per day and after heavy sweating.
- When you do wash, use a gentle, oil-free, alcohol-free, and non-abrasive cleanser.
- Use a cotton pad or washcloth to lightly wash your face (but change and use a clean cloth or pad each time).
- After washing, rinse your skin with lukewarm water. Then gently pat dry and apply moisturizer.
- Avoid over-cleansing. It can overstimulate the skin's oil glands.
- Shampoo regularly. If you have oily skin, it's best to shampoo daily. Avoid oily hair mousse or pomade near the hairline.
- Change your pillowcases frequently.
- Keep your hands off your face because there are bacteria on the fingers.
- Use earbuds. Don’t hold a cellphone against your face.
Above all, avoid the temptation to squeeze or pop your pimples. That can result in permanent acne scars. If you have clogged pores, get a professional facial.