PHENYLALANINE Overview Information
Phenylalanine is an amino acid, a "building block" of protein. There are three forms of phenylalanine: D-phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine, and the mix made in the laboratory called DL-phenylalanine. D-phenylalanine is not an essential amino acid. Its role in people is not currently understood. L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid. It is the only form of phenylalanine found in proteins. Major dietary sources of L-phenylalanine include meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and milk.
Phenylalanine is used for a skin disease called vitiligo, depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, pain, acupuncture anesthesia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, weight loss, and alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Some people apply it directly to the skin for vitiligo and dark spots on the skin due to aging (liver spots).
How does it work?
The body uses phenylalanine to make chemical messengers, but it is not clear how phenylalanine might work.
Possibly Effective for:
Possibly Ineffective for:
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some research suggests that patients with ADHD have lower levels of amino acids such as phenylalanine, so there was hope that providing phenylalanine might treat ADHD. However, taking phenylalanine by mouth does not seem to have any effect on ADHD symptoms.
- Pain. Taking D-phenylalanine by mouth does not need to reduce pain.
- Acupuncture anesthesia. Early research suggests that taking D-phenylalanine by mouth might enhance acupuncture anesthesia while having a tooth pulled. However, it does not seem to improve acupuncture anesthesia for back pain.
- Aging skin. Early research shows that applying a modified form of phenylalanine called undecylenoyl phenylalanine as a 2% cream twice daily for 12 weeks can reduce the number of age spots.
- Alcoholism. Early research suggests that taking a combination of D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine, and L-5-hydroxytryptophan for 40 days can improve some symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.
- Depression. Limited clinical research performed in the 1970s and 1980s suggests L-phenylalanine or DL-phenylalanine might be useful for depression. However, this research needs to be confirmed. Taking D-phenylalanine does not appear to improve symptoms of depression.
- Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that using Cari Loder's regiment, which includes L-phenylalanine, lofepramine, and intramuscular vitamin B12 for 24 weeks, does not improve disability in people with multiple sclerosis.
- Parkinson's disease. Limited research suggests taking one form of phenylalanine (D-phenylalanine) might decrease symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, taking another form (DL-phenylalanine) does not seem to work.
- Phenylalanine deficiency. Early research suggests that taking phenylalanine by mouth might improve phenylalanine deficiency in children with tyrosinemia.
- Weight loss. Early research shows that phenylalanine does not reduce hunger in people who are obese or overweight.
- Other conditions.
PHENYLALANINE Side Effects & Safety
L-phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods.
L-Phenylalanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine or when applied as a cream, short-term.
There is not enough reliable information available about the safety of D-phenylalanine.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts commonly found in foods by pregnant women who have normal phenylalanine levels. However, having too much phenylalanine in the mother's system during pregnancy can increase the chances of birth defects. The risk for facial defects is highest at weeks 10-14, nervous system and growth defects between 3-16 weeks, and heart defects at 3-8 weeks. For women who process phenylalanine normally and have normal levels, it is probably fine to get the amount of phenylalanine found in food, but not in higher doses. Do not take supplements. For women who have high levels of phenylalanine, even normal food amounts are UNSAFE. Additionally, experts recommend a low phenylalanine diet for at least 20 weeks before getting pregnant. This should reduce the risk of birth defects.
Phenylalanine is LIKELY SAFE for breast-feeding mothers whose bodies' process phenylalanine normally to consume the amount of phenylalanine found in food. However, do not take more. Not enough is known about the safety of taking phenylalanine in medicinal amounts during breast-feeding.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) and other conditions that cause high levels of phenylalanine: Phenylalanine should be avoided in people with certain inherited disorders that cause their bodies to build up too much phenylalanine. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of these diseases. People with this disorder can develop mental retardation, high blood pressure, stroke, and many other serious health issues if they consume phenylalanine. PKU is so serious that babies are screened at birth to determine whether they have the disorder and will need a special diet to avoid these problems.
Schizophrenia: Use with caution. Phenylalanine can make a movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia) in people with schizophrenia worse.
Major Interaction Do not take this combination
- Levodopa interacts with PHENYLALANINE
Levodopa is used for Parkinson's disease. Taking phenylalanine along with levodopa can make Parkinson's disease worse. Do not take phenylalanine if you are taking levodopa.
Moderate Interaction Be cautious with this combination
- Medications for depression (MAOIs) interacts with PHENYLALANINE
Phenylalanine can increase a chemical in the body called tyramine. Large amounts of tyramine can cause high blood pressure. But the body naturally breaks down tyramine to get rid of it. This usually prevents the tyramine from causing high blood pressure. Some medications used for depression stop the body from breaking down tyramine. This can cause there to be too much tyramine and lead to dangerously high blood pressure.
Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.
- Medications for mental conditions (Antipsychotic drugs) interacts with PHENYLALANINE
Some medications for mental conditions might cause jerky muscle movements. Taking phenylalanine along with some medications for mental conditions might increase the risk of jerky muscle movements.
Some medications for mental conditions include chlorpromazine (Thorazine), clozapine (Clozaril), fluphenazine (Prolixin), haloperidol (Haldol), olanzapine (Zyprexa), perphenazine (Trilafon), prochlorperazine (Compazine), quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), thioridazine (Mellaril), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For a skin condition called vitiligo: 50-100 mg/kg of L-phenylalanine once per day has been used. L-phenylalanine 50 mg/kg three times per week for up to 3 months has also been used.
- For a skin condition called vitiligo: Applying a 10% phenylalanine cream to the skin has been used.
- For a skin condition called vitiligo: Phenylalanine 100 mg/kg twice weekly for 3-4 months has been used.