PINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Dwarf-Pine, Essence d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile Essentielle de Pin, Huiles de Pin, Monterey Pine, Pin, Pin Écossais, Pin de Montagne, Pin de Monterey, Pin de Russie, Pin Sauvage, Pin Sylvestre, Pine Essential Oil, Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oils, Pini Atheroleum, Pini Turiones, Pino, Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, Pix Liquida, Pumilio Pine, Scotch Fir, Scotch Pine, Swiss Mountain Pine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Pine is a tree. People use the sprouts, needles, and bark to make medicine.

Don’t confuse pine with fir shoots (Picea abies or Abies alba) or man-made “pine oil.”

Pine is used for upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation), stuffy nose, hoarseness, common cold, cough or bronchitis, fevers, tendency towards infection, and blood pressure problems.

Some people apply pine directly to the skin for mild muscle pain and nerve pain.

How does it work?

Pine contains chemicals that might have activity against pain and swelling (inflammation). It also seems to be mildly effective in killing bacteria and fungus.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Thinking and memory. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C along with a specific product containing pine extract (Enzogenol) for 5 weeks improves thinking and memory in middle-aged and older men.
  • Upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation).
  • Mild muscle pain.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Blood pressure problems.
  • Common cold.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Fevers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Pine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used appropriately by mouth for short periods of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma, allergy: Pine pollen can cause an increase in allergic symptoms, even in people who test negatively to pine skin tests.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for PINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of pine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for pine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Zhang, J. B., Yang, Y. Z., Yuan, J., and Xue, S. P. [Observations of in vitro fertilization capacity and the transformation of human sperm nuclei before and after administration of gossypol acetic acid]. Shi Yan.Sheng Wu Xue.Bao. 1985;18(1):59-65. View abstract.
  • Zhang, J. F., Zhang, J. B., and Yuan, J. [Experimental studies on the cytotoxic effect of gossypol in mice, rats and human tumor cell lines and its possible mechanism]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 1986;8(6):486-489. View abstract.
  • Zhang, L. S. [Effect of gossypol on serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels: long-term follow-up study]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1985;65(8):464-467. View abstract.
  • Zhang, M., Liu, H., Guo, R., Ling, Y., Wu, X., Li, B., Roller, P. P., Wang, S., and Yang, D. Molecular mechanism of gossypol-induced cell growth inhibition and cell death of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. Biochem.Pharmacol. 7-1-2003;66(1):93-103. View abstract.
  • Zhang, S. F., Zhang, J. B., and Yuan, J. [Synergic effects of gossypol acetate and sulphadiazine on the LDH-x activity and viability of human sperm]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 1985;7(3):229-231. View abstract.
  • Zhang, Y. W., Han, M. L., and Wang, Y. F. [Estrogen and progesterone cytosol receptor concentrations in patients with endometriosis and their changes after gossypol therapy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke.Za Zhi. 1994;29(4):220-3, 253. View abstract.
  • Zhang, Y., Kulp, S. K., Sugimoto, Y., Brueggemeier, R. W., and Lin, Y. C. The (-)-enantiomer of gossypol inhibits proliferation of stromal cells derived from human breast adipose tissues by enhancing transforming growth factor beta1 production. Int.J.Oncol. 1998;13(6):1291-1297. View abstract.
  • Zhao, Y., Zhang, J. C., Ye, L. Z., Ma, S. W., Luo, H. Y., Han, M. L., Wang, Y. F., Ma, X. H., and Ge, Q. S. Studies on frequencies of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after gossypol treatment. Proc.Chin Acad.Med.Sci.Peking.Union Med.Coll. 1986;1(1):34-36. View abstract.
  • Zhong, C. Q., Lui, Q. L., Tang, Y. J., Wang, Y., Shi, F. J., and Qian, S. Z. Study on sperm function in men long after cessation of gossypol treatment. Contraception 1990;41(6):617-622. View abstract.
  • Zhu, P. D. [Electron microscopic observations on the effect of gossypol on the human endometrium]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke.Za Zhi. 1984;19(4):246-9, 258. View abstract.
  • Zu, P. D., Sun, Y. T., Cheng, J., Tian, L., Dang, M. Y., and Han, M. L. Electron microscopic observations of the effects of gossypol on the human endometrium. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 8-1-1984;149(7):780-787. View abstract.
  • Coutinho EM, Athayde C, Atta G, et al. Gossypol blood levels and inhibition of spermatogenesis in men taking gossypol as a contraceptive. A multicenter, international, dose-finding study. Contraception 2000;61:61-7. View abstract.
  • Coutinho EM. Gossypol: a contraceptive for men. Contraception 2002;65:259-63. View abstract.
  • Cowart CL, London SN, Vernon MW, Pedigo NG. The effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, forskolin, and theophylline on motility parameters in gossypol-treated human sperm. Fertil Steril 1994;61:929-34.
  • Coyle T, Levante S, Shetler M, Winfield J. In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of gossypol against central nervous system tumor cell lines. J Neurooncol 1994;19:25-35. View abstract.
  • de Peyster A, Wang YY. Genetic toxicity studies of gossypol. Mutat Res 1993;297:293-312. View abstract.
  • Gilbert NE, O'Reilly JE, Chang CJ, et al. Antiproliferative activity of gossypol and gossypolone on human breast cancer cells. Life Sci 1995;57:61-7. View abstract.
  • Guo J, Reidenberg MM. Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by bioflavonoids and their interaction with furosemide and gossypol. J Lab Clin Med 1998;132:32-8. View abstract.
  • Young, J. M., Shand, B. I., McGregor, P. M., Scott, R. S., and Frampton, C. M. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(1):85-94. View abstract.
  • Harris RM, German DF. The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Ann Allergy 1985;55:678-9. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosci 1998;18:8047-55. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19:8114-21. View abstract.
  • Karonen M, Hamalainen M, Nieminen R, et al. Phenolic extractives from the bark of Pinus sylvestris L. and their effects on inflammatory mediators nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2.J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:7532-40. View abstract.
  • Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.
  • Motiejunaite O, Peciulyte D. Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. Medicina (Kaunas) 2004;40:787-94. View abstract.
  • Senthilmohan, S. T., Zhang, Z., and Stanley, R. A. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol&reg; with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1199-1210.
  • Burry, J. N. Environmental dermatitis: contact dermatitis from Pinus radiata. Med J Aust. 7-2-1977;2(1):13-14. View abstract.
  • Geiseg, S. and Baird, S. Comparison of antioxidant assays for flavonoid containing supplements. Free Rad Biol Med 1998;24(Suppl. 1):S104.
  • Grant, J. E., Cooper, P. A., and Dale, T. M. Transgenic Pinus radiata from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22(12):894-902. View abstract.
  • Knekt, P., Jarvinen, R., Reunanen, A., and Maatela, J. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 2-24-1996;312(7029):478-481. View abstract.
  • Ku, C. S., Sathishkumar, M., and Mun, S. P. Binding affinity of proanthocyanidin from waste Pinus radiata bark onto proline-rich bovine achilles tendon collagen type I. Chemosphere 2007;67(8):1618-1627. View abstract.
  • Marcos, C., Rodriguez, F. J., Luna, I., Jato, V., and Gonzalez, R. Pinus pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(1):39-42. View abstract.
  • Pipingas, A., Silberstein, R. B., Vitetta, L., Rooy, C. V., Harris, E. V., Young, J. M., Frampton, C. M., Sali, A., and Nastasi, J. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytother.Res 2008;22(9):1168-1174. View abstract.
  • Schweigkofler, W., O'Donnell, K., and Garbelotto, M. Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two California sites by using a real-time PCR approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2004;70(6):3512-3520. View abstract.
  • Shand, B., Strey, C., Scott, R., Morrison, Z., and Gieseg, S. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother.Res 2003;17(5):490-494. View abstract.
  • Wood, J. E., Senthilmohal, S. T., and Peskin, A. V. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 2002;77(2):155-161.
  • Youdim, K. A., Spencer, J. P., Schroeter, H., and Rice-Evans, C. Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem. 2002;383(3-4):503-519. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.