PINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Dwarf-Pine, Essence d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile Essentielle de Pin, Huiles de Pin, Monterey Pine, Pin, Pin Écossais, Pin de Montagne, Pin de Monterey, Pin de Russie, Pin Sauvage, Pin Sylvestre, Pine Essential Oil, Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oils, Pini Atheroleum, Pini Turiones, Pino, Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, Pix Liquida, Pumilio Pine, Scotch Fir, Scotch Pine, Swiss Mountain Pine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Pine is a tree. People use the sprouts, needles, and bark to make medicine.

Don’t confuse pine with fir shoots (Picea abies or Abies alba) or man-made “pine oil.”

Pine is used for upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation), stuffy nose, hoarseness, common cold, cough or bronchitis, fevers, tendency towards infection, and blood pressure problems.

Some people apply pine directly to the skin for mild muscle pain and nerve pain.

How does it work?

Pine contains chemicals that might have activity against pain and swelling (inflammation). It also seems to be mildly effective in killing bacteria and fungus.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Thinking and memory. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C along with a specific product containing pine extract (Enzogenol) for 5 weeks improves thinking and memory in middle-aged and older men.
  • Upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation).
  • Mild muscle pain.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Blood pressure problems.
  • Common cold.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Fevers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Pine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used appropriately by mouth for short periods of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma, allergy: Pine pollen can cause an increase in allergic symptoms, even in people who test negatively to pine skin tests.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for PINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of pine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for pine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Vyas, R. K. and Kalla, N. R. Effect of optical isomers of gossypol on mammalian spermatozoa: an in vitro study. Acta Eur.Fertil. 1990;21(2):95-98. View abstract.
  • Waites, G. M. Male fertility regulation: the challenges for the year 2000. Br.Med Bull. 1993;49(1):210-221. View abstract.
  • Waites, G. M. The contribution of Asian scientists to global research in andrology. Asian J Androl 1999;1(1-2):7-12. View abstract.
  • Waites, G. M., Wang, C., and Griffin, P. D. Gossypol: reasons for its failure to be accepted as a safe, reversible male antifertility drug. Int.J.Androl 1998;21(1):8-12. View abstract.
  • Waller, D. P., Fong, H. H., Cordell, G. A., and Soejarto, D. D. Antifertility effects of gossypol and its impurities on male hamsters. Contraception 1981;23(6):653-660. View abstract.
  • Wang, C. and Yeung, R. T. Gossypol and hypokalaemia. Contraception 1985;32(3):237-252. View abstract.
  • Wang, H. X. and Ng, T. B. Examination of lectins, polysaccharopeptide, polysaccharide, alkaloid, coumarin and trypsin inhibitors for inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and glycohydrolases. Planta Med 2001;67(7):669-672. View abstract.
  • Wang, W. C., Jiang, Y., Zhao, X. J., Wang, Y. X., Chen, Z. X., and Liu, X. H. [Changes of serum concentrations of testosterone, LH and FSH in men taking gossypol]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 1985;20(9):696-698. View abstract.
  • Wang, X., Wang, J., Wong, S. C., Chow, L. S., Nicholls, J. M., Wong, Y. C., Liu, Y., Kwong, D. L., Sham, J. S., and Tsa, S. W. Cytotoxic effect of gossypol on colon carcinoma cells. Life Sci. 10-20-2000;67(22):2663-2671. View abstract.
  • Wang, Y. and Rao, P. N. Effect of gossypol on DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression of mammalian cells in vitro. Cancer Res. 1984;44(1):35-38. View abstract.
  • Wang, Y. F., Tang, M. Y., Han, M. L., and Zhu, Y. N. [Ultrastructural changes in smooth muscle cells in leiomyoma and the myometrium of the human uterus after gossypol treatment]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 1987;9(4):298-301. View abstract.
  • Whaley, K. J., Sampath, D. S., and Balaram, P. Optically active gossypol as a circular dichroism probe of interactions with serum albumins. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 9-7-1984;801(1):127-130. View abstract.
  • Wichmann, K., Kapyaho, K., Sinervirta, R., and Janne, J. Effect of gossypol on the motility and metabolism of human spermatozoa. J.Reprod.Fertil. 1983;69(1):259-264. View abstract.
  • Wichmann, K., Krusius, T., Sinervirta, R., Puranen, J., and Janne, J. Studies on structure-activity relationship of gossypol, gossypol ethers and three naphthaldehydes in the inhibition of spermatozoal metabolism. Contraception 1986;33(5):519-528. View abstract.
  • Wichmann, K., Vaheri, A., and Luukkainen, T. Inhibiting herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in human epithelial cells by gossypol, a potent spermicidal and contraceptive agent. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 3-1-1982;142(5):593-594. View abstract.
  • Woolley, R. J. Contraception--a look forward, Part II: Mifepristone and gossypol. J.Am.Board Fam.Pract. 1991;4(2):103-113. View abstract.
  • Wu, D. F. and Reidenberg, M. M. Stereoselective interaction between gossypol and rat plasma. Contraception 1990;41(4):377-388. View abstract.
  • Wu, D. F., Reidenberg, M. M., and Drayer, D. E. Determination of gossypol enantiomers in plasma after administration of racemate using high-performance liquid chromatography with precolumn chemical derivatisation. J.Chromatogr. 12-9-1988;433:141-148. View abstract.
  • Burry, J. N. Environmental dermatitis: contact dermatitis from Pinus radiata. Med J Aust. 7-2-1977;2(1):13-14. View abstract.
  • Geiseg, S. and Baird, S. Comparison of antioxidant assays for flavonoid containing supplements. Free Rad Biol Med 1998;24(Suppl. 1):S104.
  • Grant, J. E., Cooper, P. A., and Dale, T. M. Transgenic Pinus radiata from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22(12):894-902. View abstract.
  • Knekt, P., Jarvinen, R., Reunanen, A., and Maatela, J. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 2-24-1996;312(7029):478-481. View abstract.
  • Ku, C. S., Sathishkumar, M., and Mun, S. P. Binding affinity of proanthocyanidin from waste Pinus radiata bark onto proline-rich bovine achilles tendon collagen type I. Chemosphere 2007;67(8):1618-1627. View abstract.
  • Marcos, C., Rodriguez, F. J., Luna, I., Jato, V., and Gonzalez, R. Pinus pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(1):39-42. View abstract.
  • Pipingas, A., Silberstein, R. B., Vitetta, L., Rooy, C. V., Harris, E. V., Young, J. M., Frampton, C. M., Sali, A., and Nastasi, J. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytother.Res 2008;22(9):1168-1174. View abstract.
  • Schweigkofler, W., O'Donnell, K., and Garbelotto, M. Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two California sites by using a real-time PCR approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2004;70(6):3512-3520. View abstract.
  • Shand, B., Strey, C., Scott, R., Morrison, Z., and Gieseg, S. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother.Res 2003;17(5):490-494. View abstract.
  • Wood, J. E., Senthilmohal, S. T., and Peskin, A. V. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 2002;77(2):155-161.
  • Youdim, K. A., Spencer, J. P., Schroeter, H., and Rice-Evans, C. Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem. 2002;383(3-4):503-519. View abstract.
  • Young, J. M., Shand, B. I., McGregor, P. M., Scott, R. S., and Frampton, C. M. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(1):85-94. View abstract.
  • Harris RM, German DF. The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Ann Allergy 1985;55:678-9. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosci 1998;18:8047-55. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19:8114-21. View abstract.
  • Karonen M, Hamalainen M, Nieminen R, et al. Phenolic extractives from the bark of Pinus sylvestris L. and their effects on inflammatory mediators nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2.J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:7532-40. View abstract.
  • Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.
  • Motiejunaite O, Peciulyte D. Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. Medicina (Kaunas) 2004;40:787-94. View abstract.
  • Senthilmohan, S. T., Zhang, Z., and Stanley, R. A. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol&reg; with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1199-1210.

More Resources for PINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
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