PINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Dwarf-Pine, Essence d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile d’Aiguilles de Pin, Huile Essentielle de Pin, Huiles de Pin, Monterey Pine, Pin, Pin Écossais, Pin de Montagne, Pin de Monterey, Pin de Russie, Pin Sauvage, Pin Sylvestre, Pine Essential Oil, Pine Needle Oil, Pine Oils, Pini Atheroleum, Pini Turiones, Pino, Pinus radiata, Pinus sylvestris, Pix Liquida, Pumilio Pine, Scotch Fir, Scotch Pine, Swiss Mountain Pine.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Pine is a tree. People use the sprouts, needles, and bark to make medicine.

Don’t confuse pine with fir shoots (Picea abies or Abies alba) or man-made “pine oil.”

Pine is used for upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation), stuffy nose, hoarseness, common cold, cough or bronchitis, fevers, tendency towards infection, and blood pressure problems.

Some people apply pine directly to the skin for mild muscle pain and nerve pain.

How does it work?

Pine contains chemicals that might have activity against pain and swelling (inflammation). It also seems to be mildly effective in killing bacteria and fungus.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Thinking and memory. Early research suggests that taking vitamin C along with a specific product containing pine extract (Enzogenol) for 5 weeks improves thinking and memory in middle-aged and older men.
  • Upper and lower respiratory tract swelling (inflammation).
  • Mild muscle pain.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Blood pressure problems.
  • Common cold.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Fevers.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of pine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Pine is POSSIBLY SAFE when used appropriately by mouth for short periods of time.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking pine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Asthma, allergy: Pine pollen can cause an increase in allergic symptoms, even in people who test negatively to pine skin tests.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for PINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of pine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for pine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Randel, R. D., Chase, C. C., Jr., and Wyse, S. J. Effects of gossypol and cottonseed products on reproduction of mammals. J.Anim Sci. 1992;70(5):1628-1638. View abstract.
  • Rao, A. G. A stoichiometric analysis of bovine serum albumin-gossypol interactions: a fluorescence quenching study. Indian J.Biochem.Biophys. 1992;29(2):179-182. View abstract.
  • Ray, S., Verma, P., and Kumar, A. Development of male-fertility-regulating agents. Med.Res.Rev. 1991;11(5):437-472. View abstract.
  • Reidenberg, M. M. Environmental inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Toxicology 4-3-2000;144(1-3):107-111. View abstract.
  • Reidenberg, M. M., Gu, Z. P., Lorenzo, B., Coutinho, E., Athayde, C., Frick, J., Alvarez, F., Brache, V., and Emuveyan, E. E. Differences in serum potassium concentrations in normal men in different geographic locations. Clin.Chem. 1993;39(1):72-75. View abstract.
  • Rekha, G. K. and Sladek, N. E. Inhibition of human class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase, and sensitization of tumor cells that express significant amounts of this enzyme to oxazaphosphorines, by the naturally occurring compound gossypol. Adv.Exp.Med.Biol. 1997;414:133-146. View abstract.
  • Ridley, A. J. and Blasco, L. Testosterone and gossypol effects on human sperm motility. Fertil.Steril. 1981;36(5):638-642. View abstract.
  • Rosenberg, L. J., Adlakha, R. C., Desai, D. M., and Rao, P. N. Inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha by gossypol. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 5-5-1986;866(4):258-267. View abstract.
  • Royer, R. E. and Vander Jagt, D. L. Gossypol binds to a high-affinity binding site on human serum albumin. FEBS Lett. 6-27-1983;157(1):28-30. View abstract.
  • Royer, R. E., Deck, L. M., Campos, N. M., Hunsaker, L. A., and Vander Jagt, D. L. Biologically active derivatives of gossypol: synthesis and antimalarial activities of peri-acylated gossylic nitriles. J.Med.Chem. 1986;29(9):1799-1801. View abstract.
  • Royer, R. E., Kibirige, M., Tafoya, C. R., Deck, L. M., and Vander Jagt, D. L. Binding of gossypol derivatives to human serum albumin. J.Pharm.Sci. 1988;77(3):237-240. View abstract.
  • Royer, R. E., Mills, R. G., Deck, L. M., Mertz, G. J., and Vander Jagt, D. L. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type I replication by derivatives of gossypol. Pharmacol.Res. 1991;24(4):407-412. View abstract.
  • Sadykov, A. S., Ismailov, A. I., Zakhidov, S. T., and Baram, N. I. [Effect of gossypol on spermatogenesis and fertility in man and mammals]. Ontogenez 1985;16(4):346-357. View abstract.
  • Sagach, V. F., Kindybalyuk, A. M., and Kovalenko, T. N. Functional hyperemia of skeletal muscle: role of endothelium. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 1992;20 Suppl 12:S170-S175. View abstract.
  • Sampath, D. S. and Balaram, P. Resolution of racemic gossypol and interaction of individual enantiomers with serum albumins and model peptides. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 6-19-1986;882(2):183-186. View abstract.
  • Shelley, M. D., Hartley, L., Groundwater, P. W., and Fish, R. G. Structure-activity studies on gossypol in tumor cell lines. Anticancer Drugs 2000;11(3):209-216. View abstract.
  • Sheriff, D. S., Ghwarsha, K., Elgengan, K. B., and el Fakhri, M. Effect of gossypol on the activity of erythrocyte Na+-K+ ATPase activity in vitro. Clin.Chem. 1987;33(2 Pt 1):309. View abstract.
  • Shidaifat, F., Canatan, H., Kulp, S. K., Sugimoto, Y., Zhang, Y., Brueggemeier, R. W., Somers, W. J., Chang, W. Y., Wang, H. C., and Lin, Y. C. Gossypol arrests human benign prostatic hyperplastic cell growth at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Anticancer Res. 1997;17(2A):1003-1009. View abstract.
  • Burry, J. N. Environmental dermatitis: contact dermatitis from Pinus radiata. Med J Aust. 7-2-1977;2(1):13-14. View abstract.
  • Geiseg, S. and Baird, S. Comparison of antioxidant assays for flavonoid containing supplements. Free Rad Biol Med 1998;24(Suppl. 1):S104.
  • Grant, J. E., Cooper, P. A., and Dale, T. M. Transgenic Pinus radiata from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep. 2004;22(12):894-902. View abstract.
  • Knekt, P., Jarvinen, R., Reunanen, A., and Maatela, J. Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 2-24-1996;312(7029):478-481. View abstract.
  • Ku, C. S., Sathishkumar, M., and Mun, S. P. Binding affinity of proanthocyanidin from waste Pinus radiata bark onto proline-rich bovine achilles tendon collagen type I. Chemosphere 2007;67(8):1618-1627. View abstract.
  • Marcos, C., Rodriguez, F. J., Luna, I., Jato, V., and Gonzalez, R. Pinus pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2001;87(1):39-42. View abstract.
  • Pipingas, A., Silberstein, R. B., Vitetta, L., Rooy, C. V., Harris, E. V., Young, J. M., Frampton, C. M., Sali, A., and Nastasi, J. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytother.Res 2008;22(9):1168-1174. View abstract.
  • Schweigkofler, W., O'Donnell, K., and Garbelotto, M. Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two California sites by using a real-time PCR approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2004;70(6):3512-3520. View abstract.
  • Shand, B., Strey, C., Scott, R., Morrison, Z., and Gieseg, S. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin C. Phytother.Res 2003;17(5):490-494. View abstract.
  • Wood, J. E., Senthilmohal, S. T., and Peskin, A. V. Antioxidant activity of procyanidin-containing plant extracts at different pHs. Food Chemistry 2002;77(2):155-161.
  • Youdim, K. A., Spencer, J. P., Schroeter, H., and Rice-Evans, C. Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem. 2002;383(3-4):503-519. View abstract.
  • Young, J. M., Shand, B. I., McGregor, P. M., Scott, R. S., and Frampton, C. M. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic.Res 2006;40(1):85-94. View abstract.
  • Harris RM, German DF. The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Ann Allergy 1985;55:678-9. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits. J Neurosci 1998;18:8047-55. View abstract.
  • Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci 1999;19:8114-21. View abstract.
  • Karonen M, Hamalainen M, Nieminen R, et al. Phenolic extractives from the bark of Pinus sylvestris L. and their effects on inflammatory mediators nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2.J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:7532-40. View abstract.
  • Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.
  • Motiejunaite O, Peciulyte D. Fungicidal properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for improvement of air quality. Medicina (Kaunas) 2004;40:787-94. View abstract.
  • Senthilmohan, S. T., Zhang, Z., and Stanley, R. A. Effects of flavonoid extract Enzogenol&reg; with vitamin C on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 2003;23(9):1199-1210.

More Resources for PINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.