BETA-ALANINE

OTHER NAME(S):

3-aminopropanoic acid, 3-aminopropionic Acid, Acide 3-aminopropanoïque, Acide 3-aminopropionique, Acide Aminé Non Essentiel, Acide Bêta-Aminé, b-Ala, B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-amino Acid, Non-essential Amino Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don't have to be provided by food. Most amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. However, some like beta-alanine are used to make other chemicals in the body.

Beta-alanine is commonly used by mouth for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. It is also used for hot flashes, but there is limited scientific research to support this use.

How does it work?

Beta-alanine is an amino acid. In the body it is converted to other chemicals that can affect muscle.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Athletic performance. Taking beta-alanine can modestly improve some measures of athletic performance. However, not all research shows positive effects with beta-alanine on athletic performance. Scientists are trying to determine why beta-alanine might work better for some types of exercise than others. Some scientists think that beta-alanine might help to improve the amount of exercise done but not how well it is done. The conflicting results might be due to the small numbers of participants in the studies, the different types of exercise used in the studies, or the types of athletes studied.
  • Physical performance in elderly adults. Some research shows that taking beta-alanine supplements improves physical performance and delays muscle tiredness in older adults.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Symptoms of menopause. Taking beta-alanine is less effective than the drug veralipride at reducing hot flashes in menopausal women.
  • Age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing beta-alanine does not change body mass or fat mass in older adults.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of beta-alanine for these uses.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. High doses can cause flushing and tingling. Taking a tablet instead of drinking a solution made from beta-alanine powder might reduce these side effects.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking beta-alanine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for BETA-ALANINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

ADULTS

BY MOUTH:

  • For athletic performance: 2.4-6.4 grams of beta-alanine daily has been used for up to 10 weeks.
  • For physical performance in elderly adults: 800 mg three times daily has been used for up to 28 days. 800-1600 mg twice daily has been used for up to 12 weeks.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Begley, T. P., Kinsland, C., and Strauss, E. The biosynthesis of coenzyme A in bacteria. Vitam Horm. 2001;61:157-171. View abstract.
  • Dunnett, M. and Harris, R. C. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet.J Suppl 1999;30:499-504. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J. R., and Wise, J. A. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008;28(1):31-35. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A., and Stout, J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16(4):430-446. View abstract.
  • Kendrick, I. P., Kim, H. J., Harris, R. C., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., and Wise, J. A. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;106(1):131-138. View abstract.
  • Kern, B and Robinson, T. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6(Suppl 1)
  • Renaud, R. and Macler, J. [The treatment of hot flashes due to menopause. Comparative study of two drugs (author's transl)]. Sem.Hop. 2-18-1981;57(7-8):353-355. View abstract.
  • Shelmadine, B., Cooke, M., Buford, T., Hudson, G., Redd, L., Leutholtz, B., and Willoughby, D. S. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:16. View abstract.
  • Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., Fukuda, D. H., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  • Tallon, M. J., Harris, R. C., Boobis, L. H., Fallowfield, J. L., and Wise, J. A. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond.Res 2005;19(4):725-729. View abstract.
  • Van, Thienen R., Van, Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype, J., Lefere, T., and Hespel, P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903. View abstract.
  • Zoeller, R. F., Stout, J. R., O'kroy, J. A., Torok, D. J., and Mielke, M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino.Acids 2007;33(3):505-510. View abstract.
  • Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1736-43. View abstract.
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30:279-89. View abstract.
  • Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007;32:225-33. View abstract.
  • Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids 2012;43:25-37. View abstract.
  • Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:952-8. View abstract.
  • Kantha SS, Wada S, Tanaka H, et al. Carnosine sustains the retention of cell morphology in continuous fibroblast culture subjected to nutritional insult. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;223:278-82. View abstract.
  • Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 2008;34:547-54. View abstract.
  • Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr 2001;131:287-90. View abstract.
  • Murota K, Terao J. Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003;417:12-7. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20:928-31. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onsent of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007;32:381-6. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5:21. View abstract.
  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H462-8. View abstract.
  • Van, Thienen R., Van, Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype, J., Lefere, T., and Hespel, P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903. View abstract.
  • Zoeller, R. F., Stout, J. R., O'kroy, J. A., Torok, D. J., and Mielke, M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino.Acids 2007;33(3):505-510. View abstract.
  • Bellinger PM, Minahan CL. The effect of ß-alanine supplementation on cycling time trials of different length. Eur J Sport Sci 2016;16(7):829-36. View abstract.
  • Carpentier A, Olbrechts N, Vieillevoye S, Poortmans JR. ß-Alanine supplementation slightly enhances repeated plyometric performance after high-intensity training in humans. Amino Acids 2015;47(7):1479-83. View abstract.
  • Chung W, Shaw G, Anderson ME, et al. Effect of 10 week beta-alanine supplementation on competition and training performance in elite swimmers. Nutrients 2012;4(10):1441-53. View abstract.
  • Claus GM, Redkva PE, Brisola GMP, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation improves throwing velocities in repeated sprint ability and 200-m swimming performance in young water polo players. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2017;29(2):203-12. View abstract.
  • Cochran AJ, Percival ME, Thompson S, et al. ß-alanine supplementation does not augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to 6 weeks of sprint interval training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2015;25(6):541-9. View abstract.
  • Danaher J, Gerber T, Wellard RM, Stathis CG. The effect of ß-alanine and NaHCO3 co-ingestion on buffering capacity and exercise performance with high-intensity exercise in healthy males. Eur J Appl Physiol 2014;114(8):1715-24. View abstract.
  • de Andrade Kratz C, de Salles Painelli V, de Andrade Nemezio KM, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation enhances judo-related performance in highly-trained athletes. J Sci Med Sport 2017;20(4):403-8. View abstract.
  • Décombaz J, Beaumont M, Vuichoud J, Bouisset F, Stellingwerff T. Effect of slow-release ß-alanine tablets on absorption kinetics and paresthesia. Amino Acids 2012;43(1):67-76. Erratum in: Amino Acids 2013;45(4):1015. View abstract.
  • del Favero S, Roschel H, Solis MY, et al. Beta-alanine (Carnosyn&#8482;) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. Amino Acids 2012;43(1):49-56. View abstract.
  • Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1736-43. View abstract.
  • Ducker KJ, Dawson B, Wallman KE. Effect of beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27(12):3450-60. View abstract.
  • Ducker KJ, Dawson B, Wallman KE. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23(4):336-43. View abstract.
  • Ducker KJ, Dawson B, Wallman KE. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on 800-m running performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23(6):554-61. View abstract.
  • Furst T, Massaro A, Miller C, Williams BT, LaMacchia ZM, Horvath PJ. ß-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2018;15(1):32. View abstract.
  • Glenn JM, Gray M, Stewart R, et al. Incremental effects of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance and blood lactate in masters female cyclists. Amino Acids 2015;47(12):2593-600. View abstract.
  • Glenn JM, Gray M, Stewart RW Jr, et al. Effects of 28-day beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic exercise performance and body composition in female masters athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2016;30(1):200-7. View abstract.
  • Glenn JM, Smith K, Moyen NE, Binns A, Gray M. Effects of acute beta-alanine supplementation on anaerobic performance in trained female cyclists. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2015;61(2):161-6. View abstract.
  • Gross M, Bieri K, Hoppeler H, Norman B, Vogt M. Beta-alanine supplementation improves jumping power and affects severe-intensity performance in professional alpine skiers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2014;24(6):665-73. View abstract.
  • Gross M, Boesch C, Bolliger CS, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and interval training on physiological determinants of severe exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 2014;114(2):221-34. View abstract.
  • Dunnett, M. and Harris, R. C. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet.J Suppl 1999;30:499-504. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J. R., and Wise, J. A. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008;28(1):31-35. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A., and Stout, J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16(4):430-446. View abstract.
  • Kendrick, I. P., Kim, H. J., Harris, R. C., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., and Wise, J. A. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;106(1):131-138. View abstract.
  • Kern, B and Robinson, T. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6(Suppl 1)
  • Renaud, R. and Macler, J. [The treatment of hot flashes due to menopause. Comparative study of two drugs (author's transl)]. Sem.Hop. 2-18-1981;57(7-8):353-355. View abstract.
  • Shelmadine, B., Cooke, M., Buford, T., Hudson, G., Redd, L., Leutholtz, B., and Willoughby, D. S. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:16. View abstract.
  • Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., Fukuda, D. H., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30:279-89. View abstract.
  • Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007;32:225-33. View abstract.
  • Hobson RM, Harris RC, Martin D, et al. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23(5):480-7. View abstract.
  • Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids 2012;43:25-37. View abstract.
  • Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:952-8. View abstract.
  • Hoffman JR, Landau G, Stout JR, et al. ß-Alanine ingestion increases muscle carnosine content and combat specific performance in soldiers. Amino Acids 2015;47(3):627-36. View abstract.
  • Hoffman JR, Stout JR, Harris RC, Moran DS. ß-Alanine supplementation and military performance. Amino Acids 2015;47(12):2463-74. View abstract.
  • Howe ST, Bellinger PM, Driller MW, Shing CM, Fell JW. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on isokinetic force and cycling performance in highly trained cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2013;23(6):562-70. View abstract.
  • Jagim AR, Wright GA, Brice AG, Doberstein ST. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on sprint endurance. J Strength Cond Res 2013;27(2):526-32. View abstract.
  • Kantha SS, Wada S, Tanaka H, et al. Carnosine sustains the retention of cell morphology in continuous fibroblast culture subjected to nutritional insult. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;223:278-82. View abstract.
  • Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 2008;34:547-54. View abstract.
  • Maté-Muñoz JL, Lougedo JH, Garnacho-Castaño MV, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation during a 5-week strength training program: a randomized, controlled study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2018;15:19. View abstract.
  • Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr 2001;131:287-90. View abstract.
  • McCormack WP, Stout JR, Emerson NS, et al. Oral nutritional supplement fortified with beta-alanine improves physical working capacity in older adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Exp Gerontol 2013;48(9):933-9. View abstract.
  • Milioni F, Redkva PE, Barbieri FA, Zagatto AM. Six weeks of ß-alanine supplementation did not enhance repeated-sprint ability or technical performances in young elite basketball players. Nutr Health 2017;23(2):111-8. View abstract.
  • Okudan N, Belviranli M, Pepe H, Gökbel H. The effects of beta alanine plus creatine administration on performance during repeated bouts of supramaximal exercise in sedentary men. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2015;55(11):1322-8. View abstract.
  • Outlaw JJ, Smith-Ryan AE, Buckley AL, et al. Effects of ß-alanine on body composition and performance measures in collegiate women. J Strength Cond Res 2016;30(9):2627-37. View abstract.
  • Sale C, Saunders B, Hudson S, Wise JA, Harris RC, Sunderland CD. Effect of ß-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011;43(10):1972-8. View abstract.
  • Saunders B, Elliott-Sale K, Artioli GG, et al. ß-alanine supplementation to improve exercise capacity and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2017;51(8):658-69. View abstract.
  • Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C. Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint performance during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test. Amino Acids 2012;43(1):39-47. View abstract.
  • Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2014;24(2):196-205. View abstract.
  • Smith-Ryan AE, Fukuda DH, Stout JR, Kendall KL. High-velocity intermittent running: effects of beta-alanine supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26(10):2798-805. View abstract.
  • Smith-Ryan AE, Woessner MN, Melvin MN, Wingfield HL, Hackney AC. The effects of beta-alanine supplementation on physical working capacity at heart rate threshold. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2014;34(5):397-404. View abstract.
  • Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, et al. Effect of two ß-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids 2012;42(6):2461-72. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20:928-31. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onsent of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007;32:381-6. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5:21. View abstract.
  • Sweeney KM, Wright GA, Glenn Brice A, Doberstein ST. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on power performance during repeated sprint activity. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24(1):79-87. View abstract.
  • Taub SJ. The use of bromelains in sinusitis: a double-blind clinical evaluation. Eye Ear Nose Throat Mon 1967;46:361-2. View abstract.
  • Tobias G, Benatti FB, de Salles Painelli V, et al. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance. Amino Acids 2013;45(2):309-17. View abstract.
  • Traut TW. Beta-alanine synthase, an enzyme involved in catabolism of uracil and thymine. Methods Enzymol 2000;324:399-410. View abstract.
  • Walter AA, Smith AE, Kendall KL, Stout JR, Cramer JT. Six weeks of high-intensity interval training with and without beta-alanine supplementation for improving cardiovascular fitness in women. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24(5):1199-207. View abstract.
  • Young C, Oladipo O, Frasier S, et al. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. Mil Med 2012;177(12):1450-4. View abstract.
  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H462-8. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.