BETA-ALANINE

OTHER NAME(S):

3-aminopropanoic acid, 3-aminopropionic Acid, Acide 3-aminopropanoïque, Acide 3-aminopropionique, Acide Aminé Non Essentiel, Acide Bêta-Aminé, b-Ala, B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-amino Acid, Non-essential Amino Acid.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Beta-alanine is used for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly.

How does it work?

Beta-alanine is an amino acid. In the body it is converted to other chemicals that can affect muscle.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Physical performance. Some research shows that taking beta-alanine modestly improves some measures of physical performance, especially during high-intensity exercise and strength training. Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. Researchers are hopeful that these benefits might lower fall risk, but it’s too early to know that for sure. Other research shows that a specific product containing beta-alanine, creatine monohydrate, arginine, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and leucine (NO-Shotgun) might increase fat-free mass and strength in men participating in resistance training. However, not all research shows beneficial effects of beta-alanine on physical performance. The conflicting results might be due to the small numbers of participants in studies or the variability in doses used, duration of supplementation, variable exercise protocol, and populations studied. Most research has used a specific beta-alanine product (CarnoSyn, Natural Alternatives International).

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Hot flashes. Early research suggests that taking beta-alanine is less effective than the drug veralipride at reducing hot flashes in menopausal women.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of beta-alanine for this use.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. High doses can cause flushing and tingling.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking beta-alanine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for BETA-ALANINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For improving physical performance: 3.2-6.4 grams daily of a specific beta-alanine product (CarnoSyn, Natural Alternatives International).

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Begley, T. P., Kinsland, C., and Strauss, E. The biosynthesis of coenzyme A in bacteria. Vitam Horm. 2001;61:157-171. View abstract.
  • Dunnett, M. and Harris, R. C. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet.J Suppl 1999;30:499-504. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J. R., and Wise, J. A. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008;28(1):31-35. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A., and Stout, J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16(4):430-446. View abstract.
  • Kendrick, I. P., Kim, H. J., Harris, R. C., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., and Wise, J. A. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;106(1):131-138. View abstract.
  • Kern, B and Robinson, T. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6(Suppl 1)
  • Renaud, R. and Macler, J. [The treatment of hot flashes due to menopause. Comparative study of two drugs (author's transl)]. Sem.Hop. 2-18-1981;57(7-8):353-355. View abstract.
  • Shelmadine, B., Cooke, M., Buford, T., Hudson, G., Redd, L., Leutholtz, B., and Willoughby, D. S. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:16. View abstract.
  • Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., Fukuda, D. H., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  • Tallon, M. J., Harris, R. C., Boobis, L. H., Fallowfield, J. L., and Wise, J. A. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond.Res 2005;19(4):725-729. View abstract.
  • Van, Thienen R., Van, Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype, J., Lefere, T., and Hespel, P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903. View abstract.
  • Zoeller, R. F., Stout, J. R., O'kroy, J. A., Torok, D. J., and Mielke, M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino.Acids 2007;33(3):505-510. View abstract.
  • Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1736-43. View abstract.
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30:279-89. View abstract.
  • Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007;32:225-33. View abstract.
  • Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids 2012;43:25-37. View abstract.
  • Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:952-8. View abstract.
  • Kantha SS, Wada S, Tanaka H, et al. Carnosine sustains the retention of cell morphology in continuous fibroblast culture subjected to nutritional insult. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;223:278-82. View abstract.
  • Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 2008;34:547-54. View abstract.
  • Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr 2001;131:287-90. View abstract.
  • Murota K, Terao J. Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003;417:12-7. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20:928-31. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onsent of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007;32:381-6. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5:21. View abstract.
  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H462-8. View abstract.
  • Bakardjiev, A. and Bauer, K. Transport of beta-alanine and biosynthesis of carnosine by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture. Eur J Biochem 10-15-1994;225(2):617-623. View abstract.
  • Begley, T. P., Kinsland, C., and Strauss, E. The biosynthesis of coenzyme A in bacteria. Vitam Horm. 2001;61:157-171. View abstract.
  • Dunnett, M. and Harris, R. C. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet.J Suppl 1999;30:499-504. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J. R., and Wise, J. A. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008;28(1):31-35. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N., Kang, J., Mangine, G., Faigenbaum, A., and Stout, J. Effect of creatine and beta-alanine supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength/power athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16(4):430-446. View abstract.
  • Kendrick, I. P., Kim, H. J., Harris, R. C., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., and Wise, J. A. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;106(1):131-138. View abstract.
  • Kern, B and Robinson, T. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6(Suppl 1)
  • Renaud, R. and Macler, J. [The treatment of hot flashes due to menopause. Comparative study of two drugs (author's transl)]. Sem.Hop. 2-18-1981;57(7-8):353-355. View abstract.
  • Shelmadine, B., Cooke, M., Buford, T., Hudson, G., Redd, L., Leutholtz, B., and Willoughby, D. S. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:16. View abstract.
  • Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., Fukuda, D. H., Beck, T. W., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  • Tallon, M. J., Harris, R. C., Boobis, L. H., Fallowfield, J. L., and Wise, J. A. The carnosine content of vastus lateralis is elevated in resistance-trained bodybuilders. J Strength Cond.Res 2005;19(4):725-729. View abstract.
  • Van, Thienen R., Van, Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype, J., Lefere, T., and Hespel, P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903. View abstract.
  • Zoeller, R. F., Stout, J. R., O'kroy, J. A., Torok, D. J., and Mielke, M. Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic power, ventilatory and lactate thresholds, and time to exhaustion. Amino.Acids 2007;33(3):505-510. View abstract.
  • Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, et al. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:1736-43. View abstract.
  • Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30:279-89. View abstract.
  • Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids 2007;32:225-33. View abstract.
  • Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, et al. Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids 2012;43:25-37. View abstract.
  • Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, Ross R, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29:952-8. View abstract.
  • Kantha SS, Wada S, Tanaka H, et al. Carnosine sustains the retention of cell morphology in continuous fibroblast culture subjected to nutritional insult. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;223:278-82. View abstract.
  • Kendrick IP, Harris RC, Kim HJ, et al. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino Acids 2008;34:547-54. View abstract.
  • Maynard LM, Boissonneault GA, Chow CK, Bruckner GG. High levels of dietary carnosine are associated with increased concentrations of carnosine and histidine in rat soleus muscle. J Nutr 2001;131:287-90. View abstract.
  • Murota K, Terao J. Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism. Arch Biochem Biophys 2003;417:12-7. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Mielke M, et al. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond Res 2006;20:928-31. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Cramer JT, Zoeller RF, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onsent of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids 2007;32:381-6. View abstract.
  • Stout JR, Graves BS, Smith AE, et al. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5:21. View abstract.
  • Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol 1997;272:H462-8. View abstract.

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