IRVINGIA GABONENSIS

OTHER NAME(S):

African Mango, Agbono, Bread Tree, Bush Mango, Dika Nut, Dikanut, Dikka, Duiker Nut, Etima, Irvingia, Irvingia barteri, Irvingia gabonensis, Kaka, Mangifera gabonensis, Manguier Sauvage, Odika, Ogbono, Wild Mango.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Irvingia gabonensis is a tree, native to West Africa. The fruit is similar to a mango and is used for food. The seeds are used to make medicine.

There is interest in using supplements containing Irvingia gabonensis for weight loss, lowering cholesterol levels, and improving control of diabetes.

How does it work?

Irvingia gabonensis seeds might lower cholesterol because of their high fiber content. The fiber increases removal of cholesterol from the body.

Some research suggests that Irvingia gabonensis seeds might also affect fat cells, which might reduce fat cell growth and increase the breakdown of fats.
Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Diabetes. Early research suggests that taking Irvingia gabonensis by mouth daily for one month reduces blood sugar, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and increases “good” high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • High cholesterol. Some small studies show that Irvingia gabonensis seed extracts might reduce bad cholesterol levels and increase good cholesterol levels in people who are overweight. But this research is low quality.
  • Obesity. Some small studies show that Irvingia gabonensis seed extracts might help reduce weight in people who are overweight, especially if combined with a low-calorie diet. But this research is poor quality.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate Irvingia gabonensis for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Irvingia gabonensis is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults when a crude seed extract is taken for up to 4 weeks, or when a specific standardized seed extract called IGOB131 is used for up to 10 weeks. The only side effects reported are flatulence, headaches, and sleep problems.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Irvingia gabonensis if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Irvingia gabonensis can lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of blood sugar that has become too low (hypoglycemia). Monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use Irvingia gabonensis.

Surgery: Irvingia gabonensis can affect blood sugar and might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking Irvingia gabonensis at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for IRVINGIA GABONENSIS Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For obesity and lowering cholesterol levels, a dose of 1.05 grams of crude seed extract three times daily has been used. A dose of 150 mg of a standardized seed extract (IGOB131) twice daily has also been used.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abdulrahman, F., Inyang, I. S., Abbah, J., Binda, L., Amos, S., and Gamaniel, K. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis on gastrointestinal tract in rodents. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 2004;42(8):787-791. View abstract.
  • Abdulude FO. In vitro digestibility of some tropical plant seeds. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse. 2005;82(3):152-154.
  • Achinewhu SC. Ascorbic acid content of some Nigerian local fruits and vegetables. Qualitas Plantarum Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1983;33(4):261-266.
  • Adamson, I., Okafor, C., and Abu-Bakare, A. A supplement of Dikanut (Irvingia gabonesis) improves treatment of type II diabetics. West Afr.J.Med. 1990;9(2):108-115. View abstract.
  • Adamson, I., Okafor, C., and Abu-Bakare, A. Erythrocyte membrane ATPases in diabetes: effect of dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis). Enzyme 1986;36(3):212-215. View abstract.
  • Adebooye OC, Bello SA. Fruit characteristics and nutrient analysis of fifteen accessions of Irvingia gabonensis var. dulcis of Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Tree Crop Research. 1998;2(1):30-40.
  • Adedeji J, Hartman TG Lech J Ho CT. Characterization of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in the African mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1992;40(4):659-661.
  • Adeyeye EI, Arogunjo FA. The nutritional value of the fruits from Pyrus communis, Irvingia gabonensis and Mangifera indica consumed in Nigeria. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse. 1997;74(3):117-121.
  • Aina JO, Oladunjoye OO. Respiration, pectolytic activity and textural changes in ripening African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1993;63(4):451-454.
  • Aina JO. Physico-chemical changes in African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) during normal storage ripening. Food Chemistry. 1990;36(3):205-212.
  • Ainge L, Brown N. Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu. 2001;
  • Akanni MS, Adekunle AS Oluyemi EA. Physicochemical properties of some non-conventional oilseeds. Journal of Food Technology. 2005;3(2):177-181.
  • Alexis SD, Marie K Gnopo N. Physicochemical properties of some traditional vegetablesin Cote d'Ivoire: seeds of Beilschmiedia mannii (Lauraceae), seeds of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae) and mushroom Volvariella volvaceae. Journal of Food Technology. 2011;9(2):57-60.
  • Amubode FO, Fetuga BL. Amino acid composition of seeds of some lesser known tree crops. Food Chemistry. 1984;13(4):299-307.
  • Atawodi SE. Polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of seeds of Irvingia gabonensis Baill of Nigerian origin. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;10(6):2314-2321.
  • Attama AA, Akpa PA. Determination of the amorphicity and glass transition temperatures of some natural polysaccharides. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2008;18:219-220.
  • Bello AB, Sule MS Alhassan AJ. Optimum pH and pH stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from five fruit samples commonly consumed in Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2011;4(1):26-31.
  • Coetzer LA, Robbertse PJ Janse van Vuuren BPH. The effect of different boron applications on the leaf boron concentration, fruit set and fruit yield in a commercial mango plantation. / Die invloed van verskillende boortoedienings op die boorkonsentrasie in die blare, vrugset en vrugopbrengs in 'n kommersiële mango-boord. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association. 1992;12:48-51.
  • Colyn J. The South African mango industry. Acta Horticulturae. 1993;341:60-68.
  • Davie SJ, Stassen PJC Grové HG. Starch reserves in the mango tree. South African Mango Growers' Association Yearbook. 2000;19-20:14-17.
  • Dawodu FA. Physico-chemical studies on oil extraction processes from some Nigerian grown plant seeds. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009;8(2):102-110.
  • Dudu PO, Okiwelu SN Lale NES. Attractancy of diethyl ether extracts of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus) (Papilionaceae), Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) (Cucurbitaceae) and Irvingia gabonensis var. excelsa (Baillon) (Irvingiaceae) to Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 1998;34(4):237-241.
  • Egras, A. M., Hamilton, W. R., Lenz, T. L., and Monaghan, M. S. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products. J Obes. 2011;2011 View abstract.
  • Ejiofor MAN, Okafor JC. Prospects for commercial exploitation of Nigerian indigenous trees, vegetables, fruits and seeds through food and industrial products formulation. International Tree Crops Journal. 1997;9(2):119-129.
  • Ekpe OO, Umoh IB Eka OU. Effect of a typical rural processing method on the proximate composition and amino acid profile of bush mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2007;7(1):1-12.
  • Fadare, D. A. and Ajaiyeoba, E. O. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the wild mango-Irvingia gabonensis extracts and fractions. Afr.J.Med.Med.Sci. 2008;37(2):119-124. View abstract.
  • Finnemore, HJ. A perspective on the South African mango industry (past & future). South African Mango Growers' Association Yearbook. 2000;19(20):1-7.
  • Fontanay, S., Grare, M., Mayer, J., Finance, C., and Duval, R. E. Ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids: antibacterial spectra and selectivity indexes. J.Ethnopharmacol. 11-20-2008;120(2):272-276. View abstract.
  • George IN, Zhao YM. Pharmacological activity of 2,3,8-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(16):1910-1912.
  • Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity. World J Gastroenterol. 7-7-2009;15(25):3073-3085. View abstract.
  • Janse van Vuuren BPH, Robbertse PJ Coetzer LA Hudson-Lamb DC. The uptake and translocation of boron and enriched boron by mango. / Die opname en translokering van boor en verrykte boor by mangoplante. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association. 1992;12:14-19.
  • Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G Ngassoum MB. Aroma compounds of fruit essential oils of Irvingia gabonensis ('African bush mango' or 'wild mango') from Cameroon. Ernährung. 1999;23(1):9-11.
  • Joseph JK. Physico-chemical attributes of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds. Bioresource Technology. 1995;53(2):179-181.
  • Kruger FJ, Fraser C. Potential use of the immobile mineral element composition of mango fruit as an indicator of susceptibility to lenticel damage. Research Journal - South African Mango Growers' Association. 2004;44-46.
  • Leakey RRB, Greenwell P Hall MN Atangana AR Usoro C Anegbeh PO Fondoun JM Tchoundjeu Z. Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis: 4. Tree-to-tree variation in food-thickening properties and in fat and protein contents of dika nut. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(3):365-378.
  • Leakey RRB, Tchoundjeu Z. Diversification of tree crops: domestication of companion crops for poverty reduction and environmental services. Experimental Agriculture. 2001;37(3):279-296.
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  • Tairu, A. O., Hofmann, T., and Schieberle, P. Studies on the key odorants formed by roasting of wild mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis). J.Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48(6):2391-2394. View abstract.
  • Udo SE, Madunagu BE Umana EJ Markson AA Takon I. The efficacy of extracts from four oilseeds and an oil fruit as agents against pathogenic microbes in comparison with known antibiotics. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Social Sciences. 2006;4(2):119-125.
  • Wegwu, M. O. and Omeodu, S. I. Trace metal contents of selected seeds and vegetables from oil producing areas of Nigeria. Chem.Biodivers. 2010;7(7):1737-1744. View abstract.
  • Wolfe OA, Ijeoma UF. Effects of aqueous extracts of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on the hormonal parameters of male guinea pigs. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010;3(3):200-204.
  • Zibokere DS. Insect inhibitive properties of some consumable local plant materials on grains in storage. AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America. 2005;36(2):43-45.
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  • Kuete V, Wabo GF, Ngameni B, et al. Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (Ixonanthaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2007;114:54-60. View abstract.
  • Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, et al. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis 2009;8:7. View abstract.
  • Ngondi JL, Mbouobda HD, Etarne S, Oben J. Effect of Irvingia gabonensis kernel oil on blood and liver lipids on lean and overweight rats. J Food Technol 2005;3:592-4. Available at: www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/jft/2005/592-594.pdf.
  • Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis 2005;4:12. View abstract.
  • Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and Leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids Health Dis 2008:7:44. View abstract.
  • Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, et al. The use of Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:12. View abstract.
  • Odeku OA, Patani BO. Evaluation of dika nut mucilage (Irvingia gabonensis) as binding agent in metronidazole tablet formulations. Pharm Devel Technol 2005;10:439-46. View abstract.
  • Okolo CO, Johnson PB, Abdurahman EM, et al. Analgesic effect of Irvingia gabonensis stem bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;45:125-9. View abstract.
  • Abdulrahman, F., Inyang, I. S., Abbah, J., Binda, L., Amos, S., and Gamaniel, K. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Irvingia gabonensis on gastrointestinal tract in rodents. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 2004;42(8):787-791. View abstract.
  • Abdulude FO. In vitro digestibility of some tropical plant seeds. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse. 2005;82(3):152-154.
  • Achinewhu SC. Ascorbic acid content of some Nigerian local fruits and vegetables. Qualitas Plantarum Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1983;33(4):261-266.
  • Adamson, I., Okafor, C., and Abu-Bakare, A. A supplement of Dikanut (Irvingia gabonesis) improves treatment of type II diabetics. West Afr.J.Med. 1990;9(2):108-115. View abstract.
  • Adamson, I., Okafor, C., and Abu-Bakare, A. Erythrocyte membrane ATPases in diabetes: effect of dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis). Enzyme 1986;36(3):212-215. View abstract.
  • Adebooye OC, Bello SA. Fruit characteristics and nutrient analysis of fifteen accessions of Irvingia gabonensis var. dulcis of Southwest Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Tree Crop Research. 1998;2(1):30-40.
  • Adedeji J, Hartman TG Lech J Ho CT. Characterization of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in the African mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1992;40(4):659-661.
  • Adeyeye EI, Arogunjo FA. The nutritional value of the fruits from Pyrus communis, Irvingia gabonensis and Mangifera indica consumed in Nigeria. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse. 1997;74(3):117-121.
  • Aina JO, Oladunjoye OO. Respiration, pectolytic activity and textural changes in ripening African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) fruits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1993;63(4):451-454.
  • Aina JO. Physico-chemical changes in African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) during normal storage ripening. Food Chemistry. 1990;36(3):205-212.
  • Ainge L, Brown N. Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu. 2001;
  • Akanni MS, Adekunle AS Oluyemi EA. Physicochemical properties of some non-conventional oilseeds. Journal of Food Technology. 2005;3(2):177-181.
  • Alexis SD, Marie K Gnopo N. Physicochemical properties of some traditional vegetablesin Cote d'Ivoire: seeds of Beilschmiedia mannii (Lauraceae), seeds of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae) and mushroom Volvariella volvaceae. Journal of Food Technology. 2011;9(2):57-60.
  • Amubode FO, Fetuga BL. Amino acid composition of seeds of some lesser known tree crops. Food Chemistry. 1984;13(4):299-307.
  • Atawodi SE. Polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extract of seeds of Irvingia gabonensis Baill of Nigerian origin. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011;10(6):2314-2321.
  • Attama AA, Akpa PA. Determination of the amorphicity and glass transition temperatures of some natural polysaccharides. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology. 2008;18:219-220.
  • Bello AB, Sule MS Alhassan AJ. Optimum pH and pH stability of crude polyphenol oxidase (PPO) extracted from five fruit samples commonly consumed in Kano State, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2011;4(1):26-31.
  • Coetzer LA, Robbertse PJ Janse van Vuuren BPH. The effect of different boron applications on the leaf boron concentration, fruit set and fruit yield in a commercial mango plantation. / Die invloed van verskillende boortoedienings op die boorkonsentrasie in die blare, vrugset en vrugopbrengs in 'n kommersiële mango-boord. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association. 1992;12:48-51.
  • Colyn J. The South African mango industry. Acta Horticulturae. 1993;341:60-68.
  • Davie SJ, Stassen PJC Grové HG. Starch reserves in the mango tree. South African Mango Growers' Association Yearbook. 2000;19-20:14-17.
  • Dawodu FA. Physico-chemical studies on oil extraction processes from some Nigerian grown plant seeds. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009;8(2):102-110.
  • Dudu PO, Okiwelu SN Lale NES. Attractancy of diethyl ether extracts of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus) (Papilionaceae), Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) (Cucurbitaceae) and Irvingia gabonensis var. excelsa (Baillon) (Irvingiaceae) to Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Journal of Stored Products Research. 1998;34(4):237-241.
  • Egras, A. M., Hamilton, W. R., Lenz, T. L., and Monaghan, M. S. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products. J Obes. 2011;2011 View abstract.
  • Ejiofor MAN, Okafor JC. Prospects for commercial exploitation of Nigerian indigenous trees, vegetables, fruits and seeds through food and industrial products formulation. International Tree Crops Journal. 1997;9(2):119-129.
  • Ekpe OO, Umoh IB Eka OU. Effect of a typical rural processing method on the proximate composition and amino acid profile of bush mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis). African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2007;7(1):1-12.
  • Fadare, D. A. and Ajaiyeoba, E. O. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the wild mango-Irvingia gabonensis extracts and fractions. Afr.J.Med.Med.Sci. 2008;37(2):119-124. View abstract.
  • Finnemore, HJ. A perspective on the South African mango industry (past & future). South African Mango Growers' Association Yearbook. 2000;19(20):1-7.
  • Fontanay, S., Grare, M., Mayer, J., Finance, C., and Duval, R. E. Ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids: antibacterial spectra and selectivity indexes. J.Ethnopharmacol. 11-20-2008;120(2):272-276. View abstract.
  • George IN, Zhao YM. Pharmacological activity of 2,3,8-tri-O-methyl ellagic acid isolated from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(16):1910-1912.
  • Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity. World J Gastroenterol. 7-7-2009;15(25):3073-3085. View abstract.
  • Janse van Vuuren BPH, Robbertse PJ Coetzer LA Hudson-Lamb DC. The uptake and translocation of boron and enriched boron by mango. / Die opname en translokering van boor en verrykte boor by mangoplante. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association. 1992;12:14-19.
  • Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G Ngassoum MB. Aroma compounds of fruit essential oils of Irvingia gabonensis ('African bush mango' or 'wild mango') from Cameroon. Ernährung. 1999;23(1):9-11.
  • Joseph JK. Physico-chemical attributes of wild mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds. Bioresource Technology. 1995;53(2):179-181.
  • Kruger FJ, Fraser C. Potential use of the immobile mineral element composition of mango fruit as an indicator of susceptibility to lenticel damage. Research Journal - South African Mango Growers' Association. 2004;44-46.
  • Leakey RRB, Greenwell P Hall MN Atangana AR Usoro C Anegbeh PO Fondoun JM Tchoundjeu Z. Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis: 4. Tree-to-tree variation in food-thickening properties and in fat and protein contents of dika nut. Food Chemistry. 2005;90(3):365-378.
  • Leakey RRB, Tchoundjeu Z. Diversification of tree crops: domestication of companion crops for poverty reduction and environmental services. Experimental Agriculture. 2001;37(3):279-296.
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