ANTINEOPLASTONS

OTHER NAME(S):

3-Phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione, Antineoplaston A, Antineoplaston A1, Antineoplaston A10, Antineoplaston A10-1, Antineoplaston A2, Antineoplaston A3, Antineoplaston A4, Antineoplaston A5, Antineoplaston AS2-1, Antineoplaston AS2-5, Antineoplaston AS5, Antineoplaston Ch, Antineoplaston F, Antineoplaston H, Antineoplaston K, Antineoplaston L, Antineoplaston O, Phenylacetate, Phenylacetylglutamine, Phenylacetylisoglutamine.

Overview

Overview Information

Antineoplastons are peptides found in the urine and blood of healthy people. The chemical structures of antineoplastons were determined in the 1980s. Today, most antineoplastons are prepared in a laboratory.

Antineoplastons are used for various cancers, high cholesterol, brain swelling due to infection (encephalitis), HIV/AIDS, Parkinson disease, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Antineoplastons might stimulate the immune system. These peptides might also kill certain cancer cells or prevent them from growing.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Brain tumor. Early research shows that using antineoplastons along with standard medications after radiation and surgery might help reduce the size of brain tumors in some people. Other early research shows that injecting antineoplastons intravenously (by IV) might help reduce the size of a specific type of brain tumor, called a glioma, in some adults and children. But other research shows that antineoplastons don't reduce tumor size in people with gliomas. All of the research to date is low-quality.
  • Colon cancer. Early research shows that injecting antineoplastons intravenously (by IV) and then taking them by mouth might help people with colon cancer to live longer after having a part of their liver removed.
  • A rare tumor that affects the central nervous system (primitive neuroectodermal tumor or PNET). Injecting antineoplastons intravenously (by IV) might help reduce the size of PNETs or keep PNETs from becoming larger in some children with PNET. However, the research to date is low-quality.
  • Prostate cancer. Injecting antineoplastons along with the drug diethylstilbestrol might increase the chance of remission in people with prostate cancer. However, the research to date is low-quality.
  • Breast cancer.
  • Liver cancer.
  • Lung cancer.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Brain swelling due to infection (encephalitis).
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Parkinson disease.
  • Sickle cell anemia.
  • An inherited blood disorder called thalassemia.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of antineoplastons for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 are POSSIBLY SAFE in appropriate amounts when used short-term under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 are POSSIBLY UNSAFE in higher doses or for longer periods of time. Giving antineoplastons in higher doses or for longer periods of time seems to increase the number of side effects. There isn't enough reliable information to know if other types of antineoplastons are safe.

When given by IV: Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 are POSSIBLY SAFE in appropriate amounts when given short-term by a healthcare professional. Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 are POSSIBLY UNSAFE when given in higher doses or for longer periods of time. Giving antineoplastons in higher doses or for longer periods of time seems to increase the number of side effects. There isn't enough reliable information to know if other types of antineoplastons are safe.

Side effects of antineoplastons include irregular heartbeat, increased blood pressure, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, gas, liver problems, joint swelling, muscle and joint pain, weakness, tiredness, headache, ringing in the ears, dizziness, and fever.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if it is safe to use antineoplastons when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for ANTINEOPLASTONS Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of antineoplastons depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time, there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for antineoplastons. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Abou-Zeid LA, El Mowafy AM, el Ashmawy MB, et al. Novel piperidinedione analogs as inhibitors of breast cancer cell growth. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2000;333(12):431-434. View abstract.
  • Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Kampalath BN, Burzynski SR. Pharmacokinetic study of radioactive antineoplaston A10 following oral administration in rats. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:45-50. View abstract.
  • Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. Preclinical studies on antineoplaston A10 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:37-45. View abstract.
  • Badria F, Mabed M, El Awadi M, et al. Immune modulatory potentials of antineoplaston A-10 in breast cancer patients. Cancer Lett 2000;157(1):57-63. View abstract.
  • Buckner JC, Malkin MG, Reed E, et al. Phase II study of antineoplastons A10 (NSC 648539) and AS2-1 (NSC 620261) in patients with recurrent glioma. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74(2):137-145. View abstract.
  • Burstein AH, Reed E, Tompkins AC, Venzon D, Figg WD. Phenylacetate pharmacokinetics based on iterative two-stage population analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(3):281-286. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Burzynski B, Mohabbat MO. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-1 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:25-35. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Conde AB, Peters A, et al. A retrospective study of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in primary brain tumors. Clin Drug Invest 1999;18(1):1-10.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A5 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:37-43. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A5 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:37-43. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Treatment of hormonally refractory cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):361-369. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Initial clinical study with antineoplaston A2 injections in cancer patients with five years' follow-up. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:1-11. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A3 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:17-29. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston A10 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:47-55. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Lewy RI, Weaver R, et al. Long-term survival and complete response of a patient with recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioblastoma multiforme. Integr Cancer Ther 2004;3(3):257-261. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Lewy RI, Weaver RA, et al. Phase II study of antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 in patients with recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma: a preliminary report. Drugs R D 2003;4(2):91-101. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski B. Human toxicology studies on oral formulation of Antineoplaston A10. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1984;10(12):891-909.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Lee SS. Preclinical studies on antineoplaston AS2-1 and antineoplaston AS2-5. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:11-16. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO. Chronic animal toxicity studies on antineoplaston A2. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:73-75. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Stolzmann Z, Szopa B, Stolzmann E, Kaltenberg OP. Antineoplaston A in cancer therapy. (I). Physiol Chem Phys 1977;9(6):485-500. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Weaver RA, Janicki T, et al. Long-term survival of high-risk pediatric patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1. Integr Cancer Ther 2005;4(2):168-177. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Weaver RA, Lewy RI, et al. Phase II study of antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 in children with recurrent and progressive multicentric glioma : a preliminary report. Drugs R D 2004;5(6):315-326. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Antineoplastons: history of the research (I). Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:1-9. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Potential of antineoplastons in diseases of old age. Drugs Aging 1995;7(3):157-167. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. The present state of antineoplaston research (1). Integr Cancer Ther 2004;3(1):47-58. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-5 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:17-24. View abstract.
  • Ferrandina G, Melichar B, Loercher A, et al. Growth inhibitory effects of sodium phenylacetate (NSC 3039) on ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer Res 1997;57(19):4309-4315. View abstract.
  • Hashimoto K, Koga T, Shintomi Y, et al. The anticancer effect of antineoplaston A-10 on human breast cancer serially transplanted to athymic mice. Nippon Gan Chiryo Gakkai Shi 1990;25(1):1-5. View abstract.
  • Juszkiewicz M, Chodkowska A, Burzynski SR, et al. The influence of antineoplaston A5 on the central dopaminergic structures. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):161-167. View abstract.
  • Juszkiewicz M, Chodkowska A, Burzynski SR, Mlynarczyk M, Kleinrok Z. The influence of antineoplaston A5 on particular subtypes of central dopaminergic receptors. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1995;21(4):153-156. View abstract.
  • Kampalath BN, Liau MC, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Chemoprevention by antineoplaston A10 of benzo(a)pyrene-induced pulmonary neoplasia. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:51-55. View abstract.
  • Kumabe T, Tsuda H, Uchida M, et al. Antineoplaston treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep 1998;5(6):1363-1367. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Burzynski SR. Inducibility of HL-60 leukemic cells to undergo terminal differentiation after repeated treatment with Antineoplaston A5. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1990;3(3):125-128.
  • Lee SS, Burzynski SR. Tissue culture and animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A5. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:31-35. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. In vitro cancer growth inhibition and animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A3. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:13-16. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. Tissue culture and acute animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A2. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1984;10(8-9):607-610.
  • Liau M, Liau C, Burzynsky S. Potential of induced terminal differentiation by phenylacetic acid and related chemicals. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1992;5:9-17.
  • Liau MC, Luong Y, Liau CP, et al. Prevention of drug induced DNA hypermethylation by antineoplaston components. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1992;5(1):19-27.
  • Liau MC, Szopa M, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Chemo-surveillance: a novel concept of the natural defence mechanism against cancer. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:71-76. View abstract.
  • Liau MC, Szopa M, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Quantitative assay of plasma and urinary peptides as an aid for the evaluation of cancer patients undergoing antineoplaston therapy. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:61-70. View abstract.
  • Matono K, Ogata Y, Tsuda H, Araki Y, Shirouzu K. Effects of antineoplaston AS2-1 against post-operative lung metastasis in orthotopically implanted colon cancer in nude rat. Oncol Rep 2005;13(3):389-395. View abstract.
  • Michalska D. Theoretical investigations on the structure and potential binding sites of antineoplaston A10 and experimental findings. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):343-349. View abstract.
  • Muldoon TG, Copland JA, Lehner AF, Hendry LB. Inhibition of spontaneous mouse mammary tumour development by antineoplaston A10. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:83-88. View abstract.
  • Nishiguchi Y, Adachi T, Nakazawa M, et al. [A 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence, in rats followed by a 5-week recovery test]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:27-57. View abstract.
  • Oh I, Lee J, Lee Y, Shin S, Choi B. Stability of antineoplaston A10 in aqueous solution. Arch Pharm Res 1995;18:75-78.
  • Okasaki K, Baba S, Ikeda H, et al. [A 26-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence, in rats followed by a 9-week recovery test]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:59-92. View abstract.
  • Onishi T, Yamakawa K, Franco OE, Suzuki R, Kawamura J. p27Kip1 is the key mediator of phenylacetate induced cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res 2000;20(5A):3075-3081. View abstract.
  • Potempska A, Loo YH, Wisniewski HM. On the possible mechanism of phenylacetate neurotoxicity: inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by phenylacetyl-CoA. J Neurochem 1984;42:1499-1501. View abstract.
  • Revelle LK, D'Avignon DA, Wilson JA. 3-[(Phenylacetyl)amino]-2,6-piperidinedione hydrolysis studies with improved synthesis and characterization of hydrolysates. J Pharm Sci 1996;85(10):1049-1052. View abstract.
  • Samid D, Shack S, Sherman LT. Phenylacetate: a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 1992;52(7):1988-1992. View abstract.
  • Schardein JL, York RG, Ninomiya H, Watanabe M, Sumi N. [Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate(NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence (4). Perinatal and postnatal study in rats by oral administration]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:239-249. View abstract.
  • Soltysiak-Pawluczuk D, Burzynski SR. Cellular accumulation of antineoplaston AS21 in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett 1995;88(1):107-112. View abstract.
  • Sugita Y, Tsuda H, Maruiwa H, et al. The effect of antineoplaston, a new antitumor agent on malignant brain tumors. Kurume Med J 1995;42(3):133-140. View abstract.
  • Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, et al. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous phenylacetate in patients with cancer. Cancer Res 1994;54(7):1690-1694. View abstract.
  • Tsuda H, Hara H, Eriguchi N, et al. Toxicological study on antineoplastons A-10 and AS2-1 in cancer patients. Kurume Med J 1995;42(4):241-249. View abstract.
  • Tsuda H, Iemura A, Sata M, et al. Inhibitory effect of antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 on human hepatocellular carcinoma. Kurume Med J 1996;43(2):137-147. View abstract.
  • Vasse M, Thibout D, Paysant J, et al. Decrease of breast cancer cell invasiveness by sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) is associated with an increased expression of adhesive molecules. Br J Cancer 2001;84(6):802-807. View abstract.
  • Wang H, Xu W, Yuan Y. Studies of the release rate and bioavailability of antineoplaston A10 capsule. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):357-359. View abstract.
  • Watanabe M, Sugano S, Imai J, et al. Suppression of tumourigenicity, and induction of differentiation of the canine mammary tumour cell line MCM-B2 by sodium phenylacetate. Res Vet Sci 2001;70(1):27-32. View abstract.
  • Wood CG, Lee C, Grayhack JT, et al. Phenylacetate and phenylbutyrate promote cellular differentiation in human prostate cancer systems (Meeting abstract). Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1994;35:A2404.
  • Xu W, Wang H, Yuan Y. Pharmacokinetic study of radioactive antineoplaston A10 in rats and mice. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):351-5. View abstract.
  • Abou-Zeid LA, El Mowafy AM, el Ashmawy MB, et al. Novel piperidinedione analogs as inhibitors of breast cancer cell growth. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2000;333(12):431-434. View abstract.
  • Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Kampalath BN, Burzynski SR. Pharmacokinetic study of radioactive antineoplaston A10 following oral administration in rats. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:45-50. View abstract.
  • Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. Preclinical studies on antineoplaston A10 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:37-45. View abstract.
  • Badria F, Mabed M, El Awadi M, et al. Immune modulatory potentials of antineoplaston A-10 in breast cancer patients. Cancer Lett 2000;157(1):57-63. View abstract.
  • Buckner JC, Malkin MG, Reed E, et al. Phase II study of antineoplastons A10 (NSC 648539) and AS2-1 (NSC 620261) in patients with recurrent glioma. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74(2):137-145. View abstract.
  • Burstein AH, Reed E, Tompkins AC, Venzon D, Figg WD. Phenylacetate pharmacokinetics based on iterative two-stage population analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(3):281-286. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Burzynski B, Mohabbat MO. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-1 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:25-35. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Conde AB, Peters A, et al. A retrospective study of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in primary brain tumors. Clin Drug Invest 1999;18(1):1-10.
  • Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Burzynski GS, Marszalek A. The response and survival of children with recurrent diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma based on phase II study of antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 in patients with brainstem glioma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014 Dec;30(12):2051-61. Epub 2014 Apr 10. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B. Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A5 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:37-43. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A5 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:37-43. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Treatment of hormonally refractory cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):361-369. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Initial clinical study with antineoplaston A2 injections in cancer patients with five years' follow-up. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:1-11. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston A3 injections. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:17-29. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston A10 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:47-55. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Lewy RI, Weaver RA, et al. Phase II study of antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 in patients with recurrent diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma: a preliminary report. Drugs R D 2003;4(2):91-101. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski B. Human toxicology studies on oral formulation of Antineoplaston A10. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1984;10(12):891-909.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Lee SS. Preclinical studies on antineoplaston AS2-1 and antineoplaston AS2-5. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:11-16. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO. Chronic animal toxicity studies on antineoplaston A2. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:73-75. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Stolzmann Z, Szopa B, Stolzmann E, Kaltenberg OP. Antineoplaston A in cancer therapy. (I). Physiol Chem Phys 1977;9(6):485-500. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Weaver RA, Janicki T, et al. Long-term survival of high-risk pediatric patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1. Integr Cancer Ther 2005;4(2):168-177. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR, Weaver RA, Lewy RI, et al. Phase II study of antineoplaston A10 and AS2-1 in children with recurrent and progressive multicentric glioma : a preliminary report. Drugs R D 2004;5(6):315-326. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Antineoplastons: history of the research (I). Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:1-9. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Potential of antineoplastons in diseases of old age. Drugs Aging 1995;7(3):157-167. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. The present state of antineoplaston research (1). Integr Cancer Ther 2004;3(1):47-58. View abstract.
  • Burzynski SR. Toxicology studies on antineoplaston AS2-5 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1986;12 Suppl 1:17-24. View abstract.
  • Ferrandina G, Melichar B, Loercher A, et al. Growth inhibitory effects of sodium phenylacetate (NSC 3039) on ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer Res 1997;57(19):4309-4315. View abstract.
  • Hashimoto K, Koga T, Shintomi Y, et al. The anticancer effect of antineoplaston A-10 on human breast cancer serially transplanted to athymic mice. Nippon Gan Chiryo Gakkai Shi 1990;25(1):1-5. View abstract.
  • Juszkiewicz M, Chodkowska A, Burzynski SR, et al. The influence of antineoplaston A5 on the central dopaminergic structures. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994;20(4):161-167. View abstract.
  • Juszkiewicz M, Chodkowska A, Burzynski SR, Mlynarczyk M, Kleinrok Z. The influence of antineoplaston A5 on particular subtypes of central dopaminergic receptors. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1995;21(4):153-156. View abstract.
  • Kampalath BN, Liau MC, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Chemoprevention by antineoplaston A10 of benzo(a)pyrene-induced pulmonary neoplasia. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:51-55. View abstract.
  • Kumabe T, Tsuda H, Uchida M, et al. Antineoplaston treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep 1998;5(6):1363-1367. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Burzynski SR. Inducibility of HL-60 leukemic cells to undergo terminal differentiation after repeated treatment with Antineoplaston A5. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1990;3(3):125-128.
  • Lee SS, Burzynski SR. Tissue culture and animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A5. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:31-35. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. In vitro cancer growth inhibition and animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A3. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:13-16. View abstract.
  • Lee SS, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski SR. Tissue culture and acute animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A2. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1984;10(8-9):607-610.
  • Liau M, Liau C, Burzynsky S. Potential of induced terminal differentiation by phenylacetic acid and related chemicals. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1992;5:9-17.
  • Liau MC, Luong Y, Liau CP, et al. Prevention of drug induced DNA hypermethylation by antineoplaston components. Int J Exp Clin Chemoth 1992;5(1):19-27.
  • Liau MC, Szopa M, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Chemo-surveillance: a novel concept of the natural defence mechanism against cancer. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:71-76. View abstract.
  • Liau MC, Szopa M, Burzynski B, Burzynski SR. Quantitative assay of plasma and urinary peptides as an aid for the evaluation of cancer patients undergoing antineoplaston therapy. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:61-70. View abstract.
  • Matono K, Ogata Y, Tsuda H, Araki Y, Shirouzu K. Effects of antineoplaston AS2-1 against post-operative lung metastasis in orthotopically implanted colon cancer in nude rat. Oncol Rep 2005;13(3):389-395. View abstract.
  • Michalska D. Theoretical investigations on the structure and potential binding sites of antineoplaston A10 and experimental findings. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990;16(7):343-349. View abstract.
  • Muldoon TG, Copland JA, Lehner AF, Hendry LB. Inhibition of spontaneous mouse mammary tumour development by antineoplaston A10. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987;13 Suppl 1:83-88. View abstract.
  • Nishiguchi Y, Adachi T, Nakazawa M, et al. [A 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence, in rats followed by a 5-week recovery test]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:27-57. View abstract.
  • Ogata Y, Matono K, Tsuda H, et al. Randomized phase II study of 5-fluorouracil hepatic arterial infusion with or without antineoplastons as an adjuvant therapy after hepatectomy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 19;10(3):e0120064. View abstract.
  • Oh I, Lee J, Lee Y, Shin S, Choi B. Stability of antineoplaston A10 in aqueous solution. Arch Pharm Res 1995;18:75-78.
  • Okasaki K, Baba S, Ikeda H, et al. [A 26-week oral repeated dose toxicity study of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate (NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence, in rats followed by a 9-week recovery test]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:59-92. View abstract.
  • Onishi T, Yamakawa K, Franco OE, Suzuki R, Kawamura J. p27Kip1 is the key mediator of phenylacetate induced cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res 2000;20(5A):3075-3081. View abstract.
  • Potempska A, Loo YH, Wisniewski HM. On the possible mechanism of phenylacetate neurotoxicity: inhibition of choline acetyltransferase by phenylacetyl-CoA. J Neurochem 1984;42:1499-1501. View abstract.
  • Revelle LK, D'Avignon DA, Wilson JA. 3-[(Phenylacetyl)amino]-2,6-piperidinedione hydrolysis studies with improved synthesis and characterization of hydrolysates. J Pharm Sci 1996;85(10):1049-1052. View abstract.
  • Samid D, Shack S, Sherman LT. Phenylacetate: a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 1992;52(7):1988-1992. View abstract.
  • Schardein JL, York RG, Ninomiya H, Watanabe M, Sumi N. [Reproductive and developmental toxicity studies of (+/-)-4-diethylamino-1,1-dimethylbut-2-yn-1-yl 2-cyclohexyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate monohydrochloride monohydrate(NS-21), a novel drug for urinary frequency and incontinence (4). Perinatal and postnatal study in rats by oral administration]. J Toxicol Sci 1997;22 Suppl 1:239-249. View abstract.
  • Soltysiak-Pawluczuk D, Burzynski SR. Cellular accumulation of antineoplaston AS21 in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett 1995;88(1):107-112. View abstract.
  • Sugita Y, Tsuda H, Maruiwa H, et al. The effect of antineoplaston, a new antitumor agent on malignant brain tumors. Kurume Med J 1995;42(3):133-140. View abstract.
  • Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, et al. A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous phenylacetate in patients with cancer. Cancer Res 1994;54(7):1690-1694. View abstract.
  • Tsuda H, Hara H, Eriguchi N, et al. Toxicological study on antineoplastons A-10 and AS2-1 in cancer patients. Kurume Med J 1995;42(4):241-249. View abstract.
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