KALE

OTHER NAME(S):

Boerenkool, Borecole, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, Brassica oleracea var. viridis, Chou Fourrager, Kale Leaf, Winter Greens.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Kale is a dark, leafy vegetable that is commonly eaten as a food source. Kale can also be eaten as a medicine.

Kale is taken by mouth as an antioxidant and for bladder cancer, breast cancer, heart disease, colitis, constipation, Crohn's disease, diabetes, hangover, hot flashes, high cholesterol, loss of vision (macular degeneration), and wound healing.

How does it work?

Kale contains chemicals that are thought to help prevent cancer. Chemicals in kale might also have antioxidant activity.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of kale for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Kale is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in food amounts. It isn't known if kale is safe or what the possible side effects might be when taken in medicinal amounts.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough information about the safety of eating kale in medicinal amounts during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and stick to usual food amounts.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for KALE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of kale depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for kale. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Aggarwal, B. B. and Ichikawa, H. Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives. Cell Cycle 2005;4(9):1201-1215. View abstract.
  • Balkaya A, Yanmaz R. Promising kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) populations from Black Sea region, Turkey. New Zealand J Crop Hort Sci 2005;33(1):1-7.
  • Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF. Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;289:153-163. View abstract.
  • Conaway, C. C., Yang, Y. M., and Chung, F. L. Isothiocyanates as cancer chemopreventive agents: their biological activities and metabolism in rodents and humans. Curr Drug Metab 2002;3(3):233-255. View abstract.
  • Dalessandri, K. M., Firestone, G. L., Fitch, M. D., Bradlow, H. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 2004;50(2):161-167. View abstract.
  • Firestone, G. L. and Bjeldanes, L. F. Indole-3-carbinol and 3-3'-diindolylmethane antiproliferative signaling pathways control cell-cycle gene transcription in human breast cancer cells by regulating promoter-Sp1 transcription factor interactions. J Nutr 2003;133(7 Suppl):2448S-2455S. View abstract.
  • Gamet-Payrastre L. Signaling pathways and intracellular targets of sulforaphane mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006;6(2):135-145. View abstract.
  • Gaudet MM, Britton JA, Kabat GC, et al. Fruits, vegetables, and micronutrients in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause and hormone receptor status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13(9):1485-94. View abstract.
  • Kopsell DE, Kopsell DA, Randle WM, et al. Kale carotenoids remain stable while flavor compounds respond to changes in sulfur fertility. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51(18):5319-25. View abstract.
  • Kristal AR, Lampe JW. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 2002;42:1-9. View abstract.
  • Manchali S, Chidambara Murthy KN, Patil BS. Crucial facts about health benefits of popular cruciferous vegetables. J Funct Foods 2012;4:94-106.
  • Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(7):605-13. View abstract.
  • Morel F, Langouet S, Maheo K, Guillouzo A. The use of primary hepatocyte cultures for the evaluation of chemoprotective agents. Cell Biol Toxicol 1997;13(4-5):323-329. View abstract.
  • Myzak MC, Dashwood RH. Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1. Cancer Lett 2006;233(2):208-218. View abstract.
  • Olsen H, Aaby K, Borge GI. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor'). J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(21):11346-54. View abstract.
  • Osborne MP. Chemoprevention of breast cancer. Surg Clin North Am 1999;79(5):1207-1221. View abstract.
  • Park EJ, Pezzuto JM. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2002;21:231-55. View abstract.
  • Steinkellner, H., Rabot, S., Freywald, C., Nobis, E., Scharf, G., Chabicovsky, M., Knasmuller, S., and Kassie, F. Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutat Res 2001;480-481:285-297. View abstract.
  • Stoewsand GS. Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals in Brassica oleracea vegetables--a review. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:537-43. View abstract.
  • United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27. Basic Report: 11233, Kale, raw. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/3018?fgcd=&manu=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=35&offset=&sort=&qlookup=kale
  • van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA. Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;472:159-68. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 1997;103(2):79-129. View abstract.
  • Wagner AE, Huebbe P, Konishi T, et al. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of ascorbigen versus ascorbic acid: studies in vitro and in cultured human keratinocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56(24):11694-11699. View abstract.
  • Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2007;120:2208-13. View abstract.
  • Aggarwal, B. B. and Ichikawa, H. Molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives. Cell Cycle 2005;4(9):1201-1215. View abstract.
  • Balkaya A, Yanmaz R. Promising kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) populations from Black Sea region, Turkey. New Zealand J Crop Hort Sci 2005;33(1):1-7.
  • Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF. Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;289:153-163. View abstract.
  • Conaway, C. C., Yang, Y. M., and Chung, F. L. Isothiocyanates as cancer chemopreventive agents: their biological activities and metabolism in rodents and humans. Curr Drug Metab 2002;3(3):233-255. View abstract.
  • Dalessandri, K. M., Firestone, G. L., Fitch, M. D., Bradlow, H. L., and Bjeldanes, L. F. Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 2004;50(2):161-167. View abstract.
  • Firestone, G. L. and Bjeldanes, L. F. Indole-3-carbinol and 3-3'-diindolylmethane antiproliferative signaling pathways control cell-cycle gene transcription in human breast cancer cells by regulating promoter-Sp1 transcription factor interactions. J Nutr 2003;133(7 Suppl):2448S-2455S. View abstract.
  • Gamet-Payrastre L. Signaling pathways and intracellular targets of sulforaphane mediating cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2006;6(2):135-145. View abstract.
  • Gaudet MM, Britton JA, Kabat GC, et al. Fruits, vegetables, and micronutrients in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause and hormone receptor status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13(9):1485-94. View abstract.
  • Kopsell DE, Kopsell DA, Randle WM, et al. Kale carotenoids remain stable while flavor compounds respond to changes in sulfur fertility. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51(18):5319-25. View abstract.
  • Kristal AR, Lampe JW. Brassica vegetables and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 2002;42:1-9. View abstract.
  • Manchali S, Chidambara Murthy KN, Patil BS. Crucial facts about health benefits of popular cruciferous vegetables. J Funct Foods 2012;4:94-106.
  • Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(7):605-13. View abstract.
  • Morel F, Langouet S, Maheo K, Guillouzo A. The use of primary hepatocyte cultures for the evaluation of chemoprotective agents. Cell Biol Toxicol 1997;13(4-5):323-329. View abstract.
  • Myzak MC, Dashwood RH. Chemoprotection by sulforaphane: keep one eye beyond Keap1. Cancer Lett 2006;233(2):208-218. View abstract.
  • Olsen H, Aaby K, Borge GI. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor'). J Agric Food Chem 2010;58(21):11346-54. View abstract.
  • Osborne MP. Chemoprevention of breast cancer. Surg Clin North Am 1999;79(5):1207-1221. View abstract.
  • Park EJ, Pezzuto JM. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2002;21:231-55. View abstract.
  • Steinkellner, H., Rabot, S., Freywald, C., Nobis, E., Scharf, G., Chabicovsky, M., Knasmuller, S., and Kassie, F. Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutat Res 2001;480-481:285-297. View abstract.
  • Stoewsand GS. Bioactive organosulfur phytochemicals in Brassica oleracea vegetables--a review. Food Chem Toxicol 1995;33:537-43. View abstract.
  • United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27. Basic Report: 11233, Kale, raw. Available at: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/3018?fgcd=&manu=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=35&offset=&sort=&qlookup=kale
  • van Poppel G, Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA. Brassica vegetables and cancer prevention. Epidemiology and mechanisms. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;472:159-68. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 1997;103(2):79-129. View abstract.
  • Wagner AE, Huebbe P, Konishi T, et al. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of ascorbigen versus ascorbic acid: studies in vitro and in cultured human keratinocytes. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56(24):11694-11699. View abstract.
  • Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, et al. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer 2007;120:2208-13. View abstract.

More Resources for KALE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.