GARDENIA

OTHER NAME(S):

Cape Jasmine, Cape Jessamine, Danh Danh, GardĂȘnia, Gardenia augusta, Gardenia florida, Gardenia jasminoides, Gardenia radicans, Jasmin, Jasmin Do Cabo, Varneria augusta, Zhi Zi.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Gardenia is a plant. The fruits are used to make medicine.

People take gardenia by mouth for anxiety, agitation, bladder infection, bleeding, cancer, constipation, depression, diabetes, fever, gallbladder disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, the flu, trouble sleeping, liver disorders, menopausal symptoms, pain, swelling of the pancreas, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used as an antioxidant, to reduce swelling, and to improve the immune system.

Gardenia is applied to the skin for bleeding, wound healing, sprains, and muscle soreness.

In food, gardenia is used as a yellow food colorant.

How does it work?

Some chemicals found in gardenia might reduce insulin resistance and help prevent glucose intolerance. Gardenia extract might also reduce swelling, lower blood fats and cholesterol, protect the liver, and help treat viral infections.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of gardenia for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

It isn't known if gardenia is safe when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. It might work like a laxative and cause diarrhea when taken by mouth. When applied to the skin, gardenia might cause skin irritation.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of gardenia during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for GARDENIA Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of gardenia depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for gardenia. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Akao, T., Kobashi, K., and Aburada, M. Enzymic studies on the animal and intestinal bacterial metabolism of geniposide. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17(12):1573-6. View abstract.
  • Chang, W. L., Wang, H. Y., Shi, L. S., Lai, J. H., and Lin, H. C. Immunosuppressive iridoids from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. J Nat Prod 2005;68(11):1683-5. View abstract.
  • Debnath T, Park P.-J., Nath NCD, et al. Antioxidant activity of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit extracts. Food Chem 2011;128(3):697-703.
  • Hou, Y. C., Tsai, S. Y., Lai, P. Y., Chen, Y. S., and Chao, P. D. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of genipin and geniposide in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(8):2764-9. View abstract.
  • Jarvis CE, DuVal A, Crane PR. GARDENIA JASMINOIDES: A Traditional Chinese Dye Plant Becomes A Garden Ornamental in Europe. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 2014;31(1):80-98.
  • Jia, Y. J., Jiang, M. N., Pei, D. K., Ji, X. P., and Wang, J. M. [Effect of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) on the blood flow of internal organs at the early stage of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1993;18(7):431-3, 448. View abstract.
  • Kang, J. J., Wang, H. W., Liu, T. Y., Chen, Y. C., and Ueng, T. H. Modulation of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases, glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in rat liver by geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides. Food Chem Toxicol 1997;35(10-11):957-65. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. J., Kim, E. J., Seo, S. H., Shin, C. G., Jin, C., and Lee, Y. S. Vanillic acid glycoside and quinic acid derivatives from Gardeniae Fructus. J Nat Prod 2006;69(4):600-3. View abstract.
  • Koo, H. J., Lim, K. H., Jung, H. J., and Park, E. H. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of gardenia extract, geniposide and genipin. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103(3):496-500. View abstract.
  • Kubo, Y., Nonaka, S., and Yoshida, H. Allergic contact dermatitis from gardenia fruit. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22(2):65-7. View abstract.
  • Kuo, W. H., Wang, C. J., Young, S. C., et al. Differential induction of the expression of GST subunits by geniposide in rat hepatocytes. Pharmacology 2004;70(1):15-22. View abstract.
  • Lan, W. J., Wang, H. Y., Lan, W., and Wang, K. Y. Geniposide enhances melanogenesis by stem cell factor/c-Kit signalling in norepinephrine-exposed normal human epidermal melanocyte. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103(1):88-93. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. J., Oh, P. S., and Lim, K. T. Hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides ellis in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33(10):925-33. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. J., Oh, P. S., Ko, J. H., Lim, K., and Lim, K. T. Glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis has a scavenging activity against oxygen radicals and inhibits the oxygen radical-induced protein kinase C alpha and nuclear factor-kappa B in NIH/3T3 cells. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 2006;21(1):8-21. View abstract.
  • Meng, L. and Cui, L. Inhibitory effects of crocetin on high glucose-induced apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and its mechanism. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31(3):357-363. View abstract.
  • Oh, P. S. and Lim, K. T. Plant originated glycoprotein has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mouse. J Biomed Sci 2006;13(4):549-60. View abstract.
  • Paulsen, E., Skov, P. S., and Andersen, K. E. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39(4):166-170. View abstract.
  • Peng, C. H., Huang, C. N., and Wang, C. J. The anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of action of penta-acetyl geniposide. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2005;5(4):299-305. View abstract.
  • Wang, Y. Z., Cui, X. L., Gao, Y. J., et al. [Antivirus effects of extract from gardenia]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2006;31(14):1176-8. View abstract.
  • Wen-Jun, L., Hai-Yan, W., Wei, L., Ke-Yu, W., and Rui-Ming, W. Evidence that geniposide abrogates norepinephrine-induced hypopigmentation by the activation of GLP-1R-dependent c-kit receptor signaling in melanocyte. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118(1):154-8. View abstract.
  • Williams N. The winning system. Current Biol 2003;13(4):R121-R122.
  • Xi, L., Qian, Z., Du, P., and Fu, J. Pharmacokinetic properties of crocin (crocetin digentiobiose ester) following oral administration in rats. Phytomedicine 2007;14(9):633-6. View abstract.
  • Xi, L., Qian, Z., Shen, X., Wen, N., and Zhang, Y. Crocetin prevents dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats. Planta Med 2005;71(10):917-922. View abstract.
  • Xu, G., Gong, Z., Yu, W., Gao, L., He, S., and Qian, Z. Increased expression ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is associated with crocin-mediated apoptosis in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100(1):31-5. View abstract.
  • Xu, Y., Cao, J., Wang, Y. M., and Luo, G. A. [Simultaneous determination of 3 kinds of components in Gardenia by high-performance liquid chromatography under different UV-vis wave length]. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2003;38(7):543-6. View abstract.
  • Yamauchi, K., Fujimoto, N., Kuwano, S., Inouye, H., and Inoue, K. The mechanism of purgative action of geniposide, an iridoid glucoside of the fruit of Gardenia, in mice. Planta Med 1976;30(1):39-47. View abstract.
  • Zhu, J., Cai, D. H., and Rui, J. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides). Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 2000;31:198-200.
  • Zhu, Z. J., Qian, Z. Y., and Lu, L. H. Studies of geniposide and crocins from cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides) on biliary secretion in the rat. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 1999;30:841-3.
  • Akao, T., Kobashi, K., and Aburada, M. Enzymic studies on the animal and intestinal bacterial metabolism of geniposide. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17(12):1573-6. View abstract.
  • Chang, W. L., Wang, H. Y., Shi, L. S., Lai, J. H., and Lin, H. C. Immunosuppressive iridoids from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. J Nat Prod 2005;68(11):1683-5. View abstract.
  • Debnath T, Park P.-J., Nath NCD, et al. Antioxidant activity of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit extracts. Food Chem 2011;128(3):697-703.
  • Hou, Y. C., Tsai, S. Y., Lai, P. Y., Chen, Y. S., and Chao, P. D. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of genipin and geniposide in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46(8):2764-9. View abstract.
  • Jarvis CE, DuVal A, Crane PR. GARDENIA JASMINOIDES: A Traditional Chinese Dye Plant Becomes A Garden Ornamental in Europe. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 2014;31(1):80-98.
  • Jia, Y. J., Jiang, M. N., Pei, D. K., Ji, X. P., and Wang, J. M. [Effect of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE) on the blood flow of internal organs at the early stage of acute necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1993;18(7):431-3, 448. View abstract.
  • Kang, J. J., Wang, H. W., Liu, T. Y., Chen, Y. C., and Ueng, T. H. Modulation of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases, glutathione and glutathione S-transferase in rat liver by geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides. Food Chem Toxicol 1997;35(10-11):957-65. View abstract.
  • Kim, H. J., Kim, E. J., Seo, S. H., Shin, C. G., Jin, C., and Lee, Y. S. Vanillic acid glycoside and quinic acid derivatives from Gardeniae Fructus. J Nat Prod 2006;69(4):600-3. View abstract.
  • Koo, H. J., Lim, K. H., Jung, H. J., and Park, E. H. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of gardenia extract, geniposide and genipin. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103(3):496-500. View abstract.
  • Kubo, Y., Nonaka, S., and Yoshida, H. Allergic contact dermatitis from gardenia fruit. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22(2):65-7. View abstract.
  • Kuo, W. H., Wang, C. J., Young, S. C., et al. Differential induction of the expression of GST subunits by geniposide in rat hepatocytes. Pharmacology 2004;70(1):15-22. View abstract.
  • Lan, W. J., Wang, H. Y., Lan, W., and Wang, K. Y. Geniposide enhances melanogenesis by stem cell factor/c-Kit signalling in norepinephrine-exposed normal human epidermal melanocyte. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103(1):88-93. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. J., Oh, P. S., and Lim, K. T. Hepatoprotective and hypolipidaemic effects of glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides ellis in mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33(10):925-33. View abstract.
  • Lee, S. J., Oh, P. S., Ko, J. H., Lim, K., and Lim, K. T. Glycoprotein isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis has a scavenging activity against oxygen radicals and inhibits the oxygen radical-induced protein kinase C alpha and nuclear factor-kappa B in NIH/3T3 cells. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 2006;21(1):8-21. View abstract.
  • Meng, L. and Cui, L. Inhibitory effects of crocetin on high glucose-induced apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and its mechanism. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31(3):357-363. View abstract.
  • Oh, P. S. and Lim, K. T. Plant originated glycoprotein has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mouse. J Biomed Sci 2006;13(4):549-60. View abstract.
  • Paulsen, E., Skov, P. S., and Andersen, K. E. Immediate skin and mucosal symptoms from pot plants and vegetables in gardeners and greenhouse workers. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39(4):166-170. View abstract.
  • Peng, C. H., Huang, C. N., and Wang, C. J. The anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of action of penta-acetyl geniposide. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2005;5(4):299-305. View abstract.
  • Wang, Y. Z., Cui, X. L., Gao, Y. J., et al. [Antivirus effects of extract from gardenia]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2006;31(14):1176-8. View abstract.
  • Wen-Jun, L., Hai-Yan, W., Wei, L., Ke-Yu, W., and Rui-Ming, W. Evidence that geniposide abrogates norepinephrine-induced hypopigmentation by the activation of GLP-1R-dependent c-kit receptor signaling in melanocyte. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118(1):154-8. View abstract.
  • Williams N. The winning system. Current Biol 2003;13(4):R121-R122.
  • Xi, L., Qian, Z., Du, P., and Fu, J. Pharmacokinetic properties of crocin (crocetin digentiobiose ester) following oral administration in rats. Phytomedicine 2007;14(9):633-6. View abstract.
  • Xi, L., Qian, Z., Shen, X., Wen, N., and Zhang, Y. Crocetin prevents dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats. Planta Med 2005;71(10):917-922. View abstract.
  • Xu, G., Gong, Z., Yu, W., Gao, L., He, S., and Qian, Z. Increased expression ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is associated with crocin-mediated apoptosis in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2007;100(1):31-5. View abstract.
  • Xu, Y., Cao, J., Wang, Y. M., and Luo, G. A. [Simultaneous determination of 3 kinds of components in Gardenia by high-performance liquid chromatography under different UV-vis wave length]. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2003;38(7):543-6. View abstract.
  • Yamauchi, K., Fujimoto, N., Kuwano, S., Inouye, H., and Inoue, K. The mechanism of purgative action of geniposide, an iridoid glucoside of the fruit of Gardenia, in mice. Planta Med 1976;30(1):39-47. View abstract.
  • Zhu, J., Cai, D. H., and Rui, J. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides). Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 2000;31:198-200.
  • Zhu, Z. J., Qian, Z. Y., and Lu, L. H. Studies of geniposide and crocins from cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides) on biliary secretion in the rat. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs (China) 1999;30:841-3.

More Resources for GARDENIA

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. © Therapeutic Research Faculty 2009.