POPPY SEED

OTHER NAME(S):

Abou en Noum, Abu el Noom, Abu el-Num, Adormidera, Afyun, Ahiphenam, Amapola, Amapola Real, Anfiao, Aphioni, Aphukam, Bhainzi, Birkes, Blauwmaanzaad, Blue Poppy Seeds, Breadseed Poppy, Dormideira, Edible-Seeded Poppy, Garden Poppy, Garten Mohn, Graine de pavot, Hashhash, Herba Dormidora, Keshi, Khishkhash, Maankop, Maanzaad, Mak, Mak Lekarski, Mak Sety, Medicinal Poppy, Mohn, Oeillette, Oilseed Poppy, Oopiumjunikko, Opievallmo, Opium Poppy, Opiummohn, Opiumpapawer, Opiumvallmo, Opiumvalmue, Papaver somniferum, Papavero da Oppio, Papavero Domestico, Papavero Sonnifero, Papoula, Paragtarbuti, Pavot Officinal, Pavot Somnifère, Pavot A Opium, Pavot de Jardin, Pintacoques, Pioniunikko, Pionvallmo, Schlafmohn, Semilla de amapola, Slaapbol, Slaappapver, Small Opium Poppy, Small-Flower Opium Poppy, Uniko, Vallmo, Valmúafræ, Valmue, Valmue Frø, Vrtni Mak, White Poppy, White Poppy Seeds, Wild Poppy, Yanggwibi, Ying Su, Za Zang.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Poppy seed is the seed from the poppy plant.

People take poppy seed by mouth for asthma, constipation, cough, diarrhea caused by infection, difficulty sleeping, and to diagnose a condition called vesicoenteric fistula.

In foods, poppy seed is used to make cakes, pastries, filling, glaze, or porridge.

In manufacturing, poppy seed oil is used to make soap, paint, and varnish.

How does it work?

Poppy seed might help prevent some types of cancer from developing.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Diagnosing an abnormal connection between the bowel and the bladder. Vesicoenteric fistula is a condition in which the bowel and bladder are connected. Research shows that a poppy seed test can be used to diagnose this condition. For this test, people who might have vesicoenteric fistula eat 35-250 grams of poppy seed mixed in a yogurt or beverage. The person's urine is monitored for 48 hours afterwards. If poppy seed is seen in the urine, the person is diagnosed with vesicoenteric fistula.

Ineffective for

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of poppy seed for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Poppy seed is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in food. In some people, eating poppy seed can cause allergies, but this is uncommon.

Poppy seed is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts used for medical purposes. A single beverage or yogurt containing 35-250 grams of poppy seed has been used safely.

Drinking poppy seed tea is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Poppy seed tea is made my soaking poppy seeds in water. The outer surface of poppy seed can contain morphine. When poppy seed is soaked in water to make the tea, the morphine can seep into the water. Drinking this water can cause side effects or death due to the morphine content.

Eating very large amounts of poppy seeds is also POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Eating very large amounts of poppy seed can block the bowels. But this is very uncommon.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Poppy seed is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant and breast-feeding women in food amounts. But larger medicinal amounts should be avoided until more is known.

Allergy to other plants: People who are allergic to poppy seed might also be allergic to hazelnut, rye grain, kiwi, sesame, or buckwheat. If you are allergic to poppy seed, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking these other foods or supplements.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for POPPY SEED Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

For diagnosing vesicoenteric fistula: 35-250 grams of poppy seed are mixed with a drink or yogurt and taken by mouth. Urine is monitored for 48 hours thereafter.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Angelo, H. R. and Kaa, E. [Detection of morphine after ingestion of poppy seeds]. Ugeskr Laeger 1993;155(49):4011-4013. View abstract.
  • Aruna, K. and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products. Food Chem Toxicol 1992;30(11):953-956. View abstract.
  • Bachinskii, S. S. [Rare case of intestinal obstruction in a child]. Klin Khir 1974;(11):86-87. View abstract.
  • Beck, O., Vitols, S., and Stensio, M. Positive urine screening for opiates after consumption of sandwich bread with poppy seed flavoring. Ther Drug Monit 1990;12(6):585-586. View abstract.
  • Bjerver K, Jonsson J, Kilsson A. Morphine intake from poppy seed food. J Pharma Pharmacol 2011;34(12):798-801.
  • Bozan, B. and Temelli, F. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils. Bioresour Technol 2008;99(14):6354-6359. View abstract.
  • Braun, W. and Kovary, P. M. [Poppy seed allergy]. Z.Hautkr 1988;63(4):344. View abstract.
  • Braye, K., Harwood, T., Inder, R., Beasley, R., and Robinson, G. Poppy seed tea and opiate abuse in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2007;26(2):215-219. View abstract.
  • Cassella, G., Wu, A. H., Shaw, B. R., and Hill, D. W. The analysis of thebaine in urine for the detection of poppy seed consumption. J Anal Toxicol 1997;21(5):376-383. View abstract.
  • Cranker, K. J., Phillips, K. M., Gonzales, M. C., and Stewart, K. K. Effect of seeds on bile-enzymatic-gravimetric analysis of total dietary fiber. J AOAC Int 1997;80(1):95-97. View abstract.
  • Eklund, A. The contents of phytic acid in protein concentrates prepared from nigerseed, sunflower seed, rapeseed and poppy seed. Ups J Med Sci 1975;80(1):5-6. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:3.0.1.1.13&idno=21
  • elSohly HN, elSohly MA, Stanford DF. Poppy seed ingestion and opiates urinalysis: a closer look. J Anal Toxicol 1990;14(5):308-310. View abstract.
  • elSohly, H. N., Stanford, D. F., Jones, A. B., elSohly, M. A., Snyder, H., and Pedersen, C. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of morphine and codeine in human urine of poppy seed eaters. J Forensic Sci 1988;33(2):347-356. View abstract.
  • Facchini PJ, De Luca V. Phloem-Specific Expression of Tyrosine/Dopa Decarboxylase Genes and the Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Opium Poppy. The Plant Cell 1995;7(11):1811-1821. View abstract.
  • Fehn, J. and Megges, G. Detection of O6-monoacetylmorphine in urine samples by GC/MS as evidence for heroin use. J Anal Toxicol 1985;9(3):134-138. View abstract.
  • Fritschi, G. and Prescott, W. R., Jr. Morphine levels in urine subsequent to poppy seed consumption. Forensic Sci Int 1985;27(2):111-117. View abstract.
  • Goldberger, B. A., Caplan, Y. H., Maguire, T., and Cone, E. J. Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use. J Anal Toxicol 1991;15(5):226-231. View abstract.
  • Grosch, W. and Laskawy, G. [Contribution of linoleic acid to the bitter taste of poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum)]. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 1984;178(4):257-259. View abstract.
  • Grove, M. D., Spencer, G. F., Wakeman, M. V., and Tookey, H. L. Morphine and codeine in poppy seed. J Agric Food Chem 1976;24(4):896-897. View abstract.
  • Hayes, L. W., Krasselt, W. G., and Mueggler, P. A. Concentrations of morphine and codeine in serum and urine after ingestion of poppy seeds. Clin Chem 1987;33(6):806-808. View abstract.
  • Hill, V., Cairns, T., Cheng, C. C., and Schaffer, M. Multiple aspects of hair analysis for opiates: methodology, clinical and workplace populations, codeine, and poppy seed ingestion. J Anal Toxicol 2005;29(7):696-703. View abstract.
  • Holasova, M. and Blattna, J. Lipolytic activity of poppy seed. Nahrung 1980;24(7):607-613. View abstract.
  • Holcapek, M., Jandera, P., Zderadicka, P., and Hruba, L. Characterization of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol composition of plant oils using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 2003;1010(2):195-215. View abstract.
  • Jankovicova, K., Ulbrich, P., and Fuknova, M. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2009;11 Suppl 1:S416-S418. View abstract.
  • Jeong, T. M., Itoh, T., Tamura, T., and Matsumoto, T. Analysis of methylsterol fractions from twenty vegetable oils. Lipids 1975;10(10):634-640. View abstract.
  • Johansson, A. The content and composition of sterols and sterol esters in sunflower and poppy seed oils. Lipids 1979;14(3):285-291. View abstract.
  • Kaplan, R. Poppy seed dependence. Med J Aust 1994;161(2):176. View abstract.
  • Kavka, F., Trojanek, J., and Cekan, Z. [Isolation of morpine from poppy seeds. 2. Statics and dynamics of adsorption and desorption of morphine in cation exchange]. Pharmazie 1965;20(4):220-224. View abstract.
  • Keskin, O. and Sekerel, B. E. Poppy seed allergy: a case report and review of the literature. Allergy Asthma Proc 2006;27(4):396-398. View abstract.
  • Krist, S., Stuebiger, G., Unterweger, H., Bandion, F., and Buchbauer, G. Analysis of volatile compounds and triglycerides of seed oils extracted from different poppy varieties (Papaver somniferum L.). J Agric Food Chem 2005;53(21):8310-8316. View abstract.
  • Kwon EO, Armenakas NA., Scharf SC, Panagopoulos G, Fracchia JA. The poppy seed test for colovesical fistula: big bang, little bucks! J Urol 2008;179(4):1425-1427. View abstract.
  • Lloyd-Jones, D. M. and Bonomo, Y. Unusual presentations for pharmacotherapy-poppy seed dependence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2006;25(4):375-376. View abstract.
  • Lo, D. S. and Chua, T. H. Poppy seeds: implications of consumption. Med Sci Law 1992;32(4):296-302. View abstract.
  • Malinowska, E. and Szefer, P. [Concentration of several bioelements in bread and other plant supplements]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2005;56(2):171-178. View abstract.
  • Matsunaga S, Ito H, Sakou T. The effect of vitamin K and D supplementation on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;65:285-9. View abstract.
  • Meadway, C., George, S., and Braithwaite, R. Opiate concentrations following the ingestion of poppy seed products--evidence for 'the poppy seed defence'. Forensic Sci Int 1998;96(1):29-38. View abstract.
  • Melchior, S., Cudovic, D., Jones, J., Thomas, C., Gillitzer, R., and Thuroff, J. Diagnosis and surgical management of colovesical fistulas due to sigmoid diverticulitis. J Urol 2009;182(3):978-982. View abstract.
  • Meneely KD. Poppy seed ingestion: the Oregon perspective. J Forensic Sci 1992;37(4):1158-1162. View abstract.
  • Mule, S. J. and Casella, G. A. Rendering the "poppy-seed defense" defenseless: identification of 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Clin Chem 1988;34(7):1427-1430. View abstract.
  • Narcessian EJ, Yoon HJ. False-positive urine drug screen: beware the poppy seed bagel. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997;14(5):261-263. View abstract.
  • Oppel, T., Thomas, P., and Wollenberg, A. Cross-sensitization between poppy seed and buckwheat in a food-allergic patient with poppy seed anaphylaxis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006;140(2):170-173. View abstract.
  • Paul, B. D., Dreka, C., Knight, E. S., and Smith, M. L. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric detection of narcotine, papaverine, and thebaine in seeds of Papaver somniferum. Planta Med 1996;62(6):544-547. View abstract.
  • Pelders, M. G. and Ros, J. J. Poppy seeds: differences in morphine and codeine content and variation in inter- and intra-individual excretion. J Forensic Sci 1996;41(2):209-212. View abstract.
  • Pettitt BC Jr, Dyszel SM, Hood LV. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling. Clin Chem 1987;33(7):1251-2. View abstract.
  • Pettitt, B. C., Jr., Dyszel, S. M., and Hood, L. V. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling. Clin Chem 1987;33(7):1251-1252. View abstract.
  • Rejmanowski, T. [Fecal impaction of inguinal hernia caused by consumption of poppy seeds]. Pediatr Pol 1966;41(5):587-589. View abstract.
  • Rohrig, T. P. and Moore, C. The determination of morphine in urine and oral fluid following ingestion of poppy seeds. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27(7):449-452. View abstract.
  • Salerno, C., Wisniewski, H. M., and Rudelli, R. D. Effect of poppy seed ingestion on the TDx opiates assay. Ther Drug Monit 1990;12(2):210-211. View abstract.
  • Schamschula, R. G., Sugar, E., Un, P. S., Duppenthaler, J. L., Toth, K., and Barmes, D. E. Aluminium, calcium and magnesium content of Hungarian foods and dietary intakes by children aged 3.9 and 14 years. Acta Physiol Hung 1988;72(2):237-251. View abstract.
  • Schwaibold, H., Popiel, C., Geist, E., and Hartung, R. Oral intake of poppy seed: a reliable and simple method for diagnosing vesico-enteric fistula. J Urol 2001;166(2):530-531. View abstract.
  • Selavka, C. M. Poppy seed ingestion as a contributing factor to opiate-positive urinalysis results: the Pacific perspective. J Forensic Sci 1991;36(3):685-696. View abstract.
  • Sengupta, A. and Mazumder, U. K. Triglyceride composition of Papaver somniferum seed oil. J Sci Food Agric 1976;27(3):214-218. View abstract.
  • Sproll, C., Perz, R. C., and Lachenmeier, D. W. Optimized LC/MS/MS analysis of morphine and codeine in poppy seed and evaluation of their fate during food processing as a basis for risk analysis. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(15):5292-5298. View abstract.
  • Trafkowski, J., Madea, B., and Musshoff, F. The significance of putative urinary markers of illicit heroin use after consumption of poppy seed products. Ther Drug Monit 2006;28(4):552-558. View abstract.
  • VERESHCHAGIN, A. G. [Triglyceride composition of poppyseed oil.]. Biokhimiia 1962;27:866-874. View abstract.
  • Angelo, H. R. and Kaa, E. [Detection of morphine after ingestion of poppy seeds]. Ugeskr Laeger 1993;155(49):4011-4013. View abstract.
  • Aruna, K. and Sivaramakrishnan, V. M. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products. Food Chem Toxicol 1992;30(11):953-956. View abstract.
  • Beck, O., Vitols, S., and Stensio, M. Positive urine screening for opiates after consumption of sandwich bread with poppy seed flavoring. Ther Drug Monit 1990;12(6):585-586. View abstract.
  • Bjerver K, Jonsson J, Kilsson A. Morphine intake from poppy seed food. J Pharma Pharmacol 2011;34(12):798-801.
  • Braun, W. and Kovary, P. M. [Poppy seed allergy]. Z.Hautkr 1988;63(4):344. View abstract.
  • Braye, K., Harwood, T., Inder, R., Beasley, R., and Robinson, G. Poppy seed tea and opiate abuse in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2007;26(2):215-219. View abstract.
  • Cassella, G., Wu, A. H., Shaw, B. R., and Hill, D. W. The analysis of thebaine in urine for the detection of poppy seed consumption. J Anal Toxicol 1997;21(5):376-383. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • elSohly HN, elSohly MA, Stanford DF. Poppy seed ingestion and opiates urinalysis: a closer look. J Anal Toxicol 1990;14(5):308-310. View abstract.
  • elSohly, H. N., Stanford, D. F., Jones, A. B., elSohly, M. A., Snyder, H., and Pedersen, C. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of morphine and codeine in human urine of poppy seed eaters. J Forensic Sci 1988;33(2):347-356. View abstract.
  • Facchini PJ, De Luca V. Phloem-Specific Expression of Tyrosine/Dopa Decarboxylase Genes and the Biosynthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids in Opium Poppy. The Plant Cell 1995;7(11):1811-1821. View abstract.
  • Fehn, J. and Megges, G. Detection of O6-monoacetylmorphine in urine samples by GC/MS as evidence for heroin use. J Anal Toxicol 1985;9(3):134-138. View abstract.
  • Fritschi, G. and Prescott, W. R., Jr. Morphine levels in urine subsequent to poppy seed consumption. Forensic Sci Int 1985;27(2):111-117. View abstract.
  • Goldberger, B. A., Caplan, Y. H., Maguire, T., and Cone, E. J. Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use. J Anal Toxicol 1991;15(5):226-231. View abstract.
  • Grove, M. D., Spencer, G. F., Wakeman, M. V., and Tookey, H. L. Morphine and codeine in poppy seed. J Agric Food Chem 1976;24(4):896-897. View abstract.
  • Hayes, L. W., Krasselt, W. G., and Mueggler, P. A. Concentrations of morphine and codeine in serum and urine after ingestion of poppy seeds. Clin Chem 1987;33(6):806-808. View abstract.
  • Hill, V., Cairns, T., Cheng, C. C., and Schaffer, M. Multiple aspects of hair analysis for opiates: methodology, clinical and workplace populations, codeine, and poppy seed ingestion. J Anal Toxicol 2005;29(7):696-703. View abstract.
  • Jankovicova, K., Ulbrich, P., and Fuknova, M. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2009;11 Suppl 1:S416-S418. View abstract.
  • Kaplan, R. Poppy seed dependence. Med J Aust 1994;161(2):176. View abstract.
  • Kavka, F., Trojanek, J., and Cekan, Z. [Isolation of morpine from poppy seeds. 2. Statics and dynamics of adsorption and desorption of morphine in cation exchange]. Pharmazie 1965;20(4):220-224. View abstract.
  • Kwon EO, Armenakas NA., Scharf SC, Panagopoulos G, Fracchia JA. The poppy seed test for colovesical fistula: big bang, little bucks! J Urol 2008;179(4):1425-1427. View abstract.
  • Lloyd-Jones, D. M. and Bonomo, Y. Unusual presentations for pharmacotherapy-poppy seed dependence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2006;25(4):375-376. View abstract.
  • Lo, D. S. and Chua, T. H. Poppy seeds: implications of consumption. Med Sci Law 1992;32(4):296-302. View abstract.
  • López P, Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH, Mulder PPJ, et al. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products. Food Chem. 2018;242:443-450. View abstract.
  • Matsunaga S, Ito H, Sakou T. The effect of vitamin K and D supplementation on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int 1999;65:285-9. View abstract.
  • Melchior, S., Cudovic, D., Jones, J., Thomas, C., Gillitzer, R., and Thuroff, J. Diagnosis and surgical management of colovesical fistulas due to sigmoid diverticulitis. J Urol 2009;182(3):978-982. View abstract.
  • Meneely KD. Poppy seed ingestion: the Oregon perspective. J Forensic Sci 1992;37(4):1158-1162. View abstract.
  • Mule, S. J. and Casella, G. A. Rendering the "poppy-seed defense" defenseless: identification of 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Clin Chem 1988;34(7):1427-1430. View abstract.
  • Narcessian EJ, Yoon HJ. False-positive urine drug screen: beware the poppy seed bagel. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997;14(5):261-263. View abstract.
  • Oppel, T., Thomas, P., and Wollenberg, A. Cross-sensitization between poppy seed and buckwheat in a food-allergic patient with poppy seed anaphylaxis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006;140(2):170-173. View abstract.
  • Pelders, M. G. and Ros, J. J. Poppy seeds: differences in morphine and codeine content and variation in inter- and intra-individual excretion. J Forensic Sci 1996;41(2):209-212. View abstract.
  • Pettitt BC Jr, Dyszel SM, Hood LV. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling. Clin Chem 1987;33(7):1251-2. View abstract.
  • Pettitt, B. C., Jr., Dyszel, S. M., and Hood, L. V. Opiates in poppy seed: effect on urinalysis results after consumption of poppy seed cake-filling. Clin Chem 1987;33(7):1251-1252. View abstract.
  • Poponea N, Kashlan MT, Vollstaedt J. Opium poppy seed tea: A lesser known but deadly cocktail. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197:A6895.
  • Powers D, Erickson S, Swortwood MJ. Quantification of morphine, codeine, and thebaine in home-brewed poppy seed tea by LC-MS/MS. J Forensic Sci. 2018;63(4):1229-1235. View abstract.
  • Rohrig, T. P. and Moore, C. The determination of morphine in urine and oral fluid following ingestion of poppy seeds. J Anal Toxicol 2003;27(7):449-452. View abstract.
  • Salerno, C., Wisniewski, H. M., and Rudelli, R. D. Effect of poppy seed ingestion on the TDx opiates assay. Ther Drug Monit 1990;12(2):210-211. View abstract.
  • Schuppener LM, Corliss RF. Death due to complications of bowel obstruction following raw poppy seed ingestion. J Forensic Sci. 2018;63(2):614-618. View abstract.
  • Schwaibold, H., Popiel, C., Geist, E., and Hartung, R. Oral intake of poppy seed: a reliable and simple method for diagnosing vesico-enteric fistula. J Urol 2001;166(2):530-531. View abstract.
  • Selavka, C. M. Poppy seed ingestion as a contributing factor to opiate-positive urinalysis results: the Pacific perspective. J Forensic Sci 1991;36(3):685-696. View abstract.
  • Sproll, C., Perz, R. C., and Lachenmeier, D. W. Optimized LC/MS/MS analysis of morphine and codeine in poppy seed and evaluation of their fate during food processing as a basis for risk analysis. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(15):5292-5298. View abstract.
  • Trafkowski, J., Madea, B., and Musshoff, F. The significance of putative urinary markers of illicit heroin use after consumption of poppy seed products. Ther Drug Monit 2006;28(4):552-558. View abstract.

More Resources for POPPY SEED

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