TANGERINE

OTHER NAME(S):

Bergamota, Citrus nobilis, Citrus reticulate, Culate Mandarin, Gan Ju, Mandarin, Mandarin Orange, Mandarina, Mandarina, Mandarina, Mandarine Orange, Mandarinen, Mandarinenbaum, Mandarinier, Ponkan, Santara, Småcitrus, Swatow Orange, Tangerina.

Overview

Overview Information

Tangerine is a citrus fruit that grows in tropical areas of Asia and is widely cultivated in the United States.

People take tangerine peel by mouth for asthma, indigestion (dyspepsia), cancer prevention, and many other purposes, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Tangerine fruit and peel can be eaten as a food. Tangerine fruit can also be made into a juice.

How does it work?

The tangerine peel seems to stop the growth of, or increase the death of, cancer cells.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Cancer. Early research suggests that eating a lot of oranges and/or tangerines is linked to a lower risk of developing a type of cancer called nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer affects the area behind the nose, where it meets the throat.
  • Asthma.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
  • Side effects caused by cancer drug treatment.
  • Liver scarring (cirrhosis).
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer.
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia).
  • A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS).
  • Lung cancer.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate tangerine for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Tangerine is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts found in foods. There isn't enough reliable information to know if tangerine is safe when used as a medicine.

When applied to the skin: There isn't enough reliable information to know if tangerine is safe or what the side effects might be.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if tangerine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for TANGERINE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of tangerine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for tangerine (in children/in adults). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Aslan, A., Unal, I., Karaguzel, G., and Melikoglu, M. A case of intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar--an alternative surgical approach. Swiss Surg 2003;9(1):35-37. View abstract.
  • Backman, J. T., Maenpaa, J., Belle, D. J., Wrighton, S. A., Kivisto, K. T., and Neuvonen, P. J. Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of tangeretin and tangerine juice on midazolam hydroxylation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67(4):382-390. View abstract.
  • Ho SC, Kuo CT. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium). Food Chem Toxicol 2014;71:176-82. View abstract.
  • Kang, S. A., Park, H. J., Kim, M. J., Lee, S. Y., Han, S. W., and Leem, K. H. Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium extract induced apoptosis in SNU-C4, human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97(2):231-235. View abstract.
  • Kim, M. J., Park, H. J., Hong, M. S., Park, H. J., Kim, M. S., Leem, K. H., Kim, J. B., Kim, Y. J., and Kim, H. K. Citrus Reticulata blanco induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells SNU-668. Nutr Cancer 2005;51(1):78-82. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Xu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, J. Y., and Tan, R. X. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 4-26-2005;98(3):329-333. View abstract.
  • Liao J, Xu T, Liu YH, Wang SZ. A new limonoid from the seeds of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Nat Prod Res 2012;26(8):756-61. View abstract.
  • Murakami, A., Nakamura, Y., Ohto, Y., Yano, M., Koshiba, T., Koshimizu, K., Tokuda, H., Nishino, H., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of citrus fruits on free radical generation and nobiletin, an anti-inflammatory polymethoxyflavonoid. Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):187-192. View abstract.
  • Rincon, A. M., Vasquez, A. M., and Padilla, F. C. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela]. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2005;55(3):305-310. View abstract.
  • Skala, J. and Komarek, J. [Obstruction of the small intestine due to orange and tangerine]. Rozhl Chir 1976;55(4):252-253. View abstract.
  • Sugiyama, S., Umehara, K., Kuroyanagi, M., Ueno, A., and Taki, T. Studies on the differentiation inducers of myeloid leukemic cells from Citrus species. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1993;41(4):714-719. View abstract.
  • Tian, Q., Miller, E. G., Ahmad, H., Tang, L., and Patil, B. S. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):180-184. View abstract.
  • Vilaplana, J. and Romaguera, C. Contact dermatitis from the essential oil of tangerine in fragrance. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46(2):108. View abstract.
  • Vinson, J. A., Liang, X., Proch, J., Hontz, B. A., Dancel, J., and Sandone, N. Polyphenol antioxidants in citrus juices: in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;505:113-122. View abstract.
  • Wingerath, T., Stahl, W., and Sies, H. beta-Cryptoxanthin selectively increases in human chylomicrons upon ingestion of tangerine concentrate rich in beta-cryptoxanthin esters. Arch Biochem Biophys 1995;324(2):385-390. View abstract.
  • Yuan, J. M., Wang, X. L., Xiang, Y. B., Gao, Y. T., Ross, R. K., and Yu, M. C. Preserved foods in relation to risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer 2000;85(3):358-363. View abstract.
  • Aslan, A., Unal, I., Karaguzel, G., and Melikoglu, M. A case of intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar--an alternative surgical approach. Swiss Surg 2003;9(1):35-37. View abstract.
  • Backman, J. T., Maenpaa, J., Belle, D. J., Wrighton, S. A., Kivisto, K. T., and Neuvonen, P. J. Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of tangeretin and tangerine juice on midazolam hydroxylation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67(4):382-390. View abstract.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Ho SC, Kuo CT. Hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium). Food Chem Toxicol 2014;71:176-82. View abstract.
  • Kang, S. A., Park, H. J., Kim, M. J., Lee, S. Y., Han, S. W., and Leem, K. H. Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium extract induced apoptosis in SNU-C4, human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97(2):231-235. View abstract.
  • Kim, M. J., Park, H. J., Hong, M. S., Park, H. J., Kim, M. S., Leem, K. H., Kim, J. B., Kim, Y. J., and Kim, H. K. Citrus Reticulata blanco induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells SNU-668. Nutr Cancer 2005;51(1):78-82. View abstract.
  • Li, Y., Xu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, J. Y., and Tan, R. X. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 4-26-2005;98(3):329-333. View abstract.
  • Liao J, Xu T, Liu YH, Wang SZ. A new limonoid from the seeds of Citrus reticulata Blanco. Nat Prod Res 2012;26(8):756-61. View abstract.
  • Murakami, A., Nakamura, Y., Ohto, Y., Yano, M., Koshiba, T., Koshimizu, K., Tokuda, H., Nishino, H., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of citrus fruits on free radical generation and nobiletin, an anti-inflammatory polymethoxyflavonoid. Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):187-192. View abstract.
  • Rincon, A. M., Vasquez, A. M., and Padilla, F. C. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela]. Arch Latinoam Nutr 2005;55(3):305-310. View abstract.
  • Skala, J. and Komarek, J. [Obstruction of the small intestine due to orange and tangerine]. Rozhl Chir 1976;55(4):252-253. View abstract.
  • Sugiyama, S., Umehara, K., Kuroyanagi, M., Ueno, A., and Taki, T. Studies on the differentiation inducers of myeloid leukemic cells from Citrus species. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1993;41(4):714-719. View abstract.
  • Tian, Q., Miller, E. G., Ahmad, H., Tang, L., and Patil, B. S. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):180-184. View abstract.
  • Vilaplana, J. and Romaguera, C. Contact dermatitis from the essential oil of tangerine in fragrance. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46(2):108. View abstract.
  • Vinson, J. A., Liang, X., Proch, J., Hontz, B. A., Dancel, J., and Sandone, N. Polyphenol antioxidants in citrus juices: in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;505:113-122. View abstract.
  • Wingerath, T., Stahl, W., and Sies, H. beta-Cryptoxanthin selectively increases in human chylomicrons upon ingestion of tangerine concentrate rich in beta-cryptoxanthin esters. Arch Biochem Biophys 1995;324(2):385-390. View abstract.
  • Yuan, J. M., Wang, X. L., Xiang, Y. B., Gao, Y. T., Ross, R. K., and Yu, M. C. Preserved foods in relation to risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer 2000;85(3):358-363. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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