NICOTINAMIDE RIBOSIDE

OTHER NAME(S):

Nicotinamide Ribose, NR, Riboside de nicotinamide.

Overview

Overview Information

Nicotinamide riboside is a member of the vitamin B3 family. It is found in small amounts in fruits, vegetables, meat, and milk.

Nicotinamide riboside is used for anti-aging effects, high cholesterol, obesity, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Nicotinamide riboside is changed in the body to a chemical called NAD+. The body needs NAD+ to work normally. Low levels of NAD+ can cause medical problems. Taking nicotinamide riboside can help raise these low NAD+ levels.
Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Taking nicotinamide riboside before exercise doesn't seem to improve muscle strength or fatigue in young, healthy men.
  • High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking nicotinamide riboside does not seem to lower total cholesterol or "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol) in men with high cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. Taking nicotinamide riboside seems to slightly reduce blood pressure. The effect seems to be greatest in people with high blood pressure.
  • Obesity. Taking nicotinamide riboside does not seem to improve body weight, cholesterol levels, or markers of diabetes in obese men.
  • Physical performance in elderly adults. Taking nicotinamide riboside before exercise seems to slightly improve muscle strength and fatigue in elderly men.
  • Alzheimer disease.
  • An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD).
  • Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD)..
  • Diabetes.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
  • Heart disease.
  • Liver disease.
  • Others.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of nicotinamide riboside for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Nicotinamide riboside is POSSIBLY SAFE when used short-term. Side effects of nicotinamide riboside are usually mild. Side effects may include stomach problems such as nausea and bloating or skin problems such as itching and sweating too much.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if nicotinamide riboside is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for NICOTINAMIDE RIBOSIDE Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of nicotinamide riboside depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for nicotinamide riboside. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Airhart SE, Shireman LM, Risler LJ, et al. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers. PLoS One 2017;12(12):e0186459. View abstract.
  • Braidy N, Berg J, Clement J, et al. Role of nicotinamide dinucleotide and related precursors as therapeutic targets for age-related degenerative diseases: rationale, biochemistry, pharmacokinetics, and outcomes. Antiox Redox Signal 2018. View abstract.
  • Brown KD, Maqsood S, Huang JY, et al. Activation of SIRT3 by the NAD? precursor nicotinamide riboside protects from noise-induced hearing loss. Cell Metab 2014;20(6):1059-68. View abstract.
  • Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013;16(6):657-61. View abstract.
  • Close GL, Hamilton DL, Philp A, Burke LM, Morton JP. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance. Free Radic Biol Med 2016;98:144-58. View abstract.
  • Conze D, Brenner C, Kruger CL. Safety and metabolism of long-term administration of NIAGEN (nicotinamide riboside chloride) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of healthy overweight adults. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):9772. View abstract.
  • Conze DB, Crespo-Barreto J, Kruger CL. Safety assessment of nicotinamide riboside, a form of vitamin B3. Hum Exp Toxicol 2016;35(11):1149-60. View abstract.
  • Dellinger RW, Santos SR, Morris M, et al. Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safety and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. NPJ J Aging Mech Dis 2017;3:17. View abstract.
  • Diguet N, Trammell SAJ, Tannous C, et al. Nicotinamide riboside preserves cardiac function in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2018;137(21):2256-73. Erratum in: Circulation 2018;137(21):e690. View abstract.
  • Dollerup OL, Christensen B, Svart M, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of nicotinamide riboside in obese men: safety, insulin-sensitivity, and lipid-mobilizing effects. Am J Clin Nutr 2018;108(2):343-53. View abstract.
  • Dollerup OL, Chubanava S, Agerholm M, et al. Nicotinamide riboside does not alter mitochondrial respiration, content or morphology in skeletal muscle from obese and insulin resistant men. J Physiol 2019 [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
  • Dollerup OL, Trammell SAJ, Hartmann B, et al. Effects of nicotinamide riboside on endocrine pancreatic function and incretin hormones in nondiabetic men with obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019;104(11):5703-14. View abstract.
  • Dolopikou CF, Kourtzidis IA, Margaritelis NV, et al. Acute nicotinamide riboside supplementation improves redox homeostasis and exercise performance in old individuals: a double-blind cross-over study. Eur J Nutr 2019 [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
  • Elhassan YS, Philp AA, Lavery GG. Targeting NAD+ in metabolic disease: new insights into an old molecule. J Endocr Soc 2017;1(7):816-35. View abstract.
  • Gong B, Pan Y, Vemati P, et al. Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1a regulated ß-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models. Nuerobiol Aging 2013;34(6):1581-8. View abstract.
  • Han X, Bao X, Lou Q, et al. Nicotinamide riboside exerts protective effect against aging-induced NAFLD-like hepatic dysfunction in mice. PeerJ 2019;7:e7568. View abstract.
  • Hong G, Zheng D, Zhang L, et al. Administration of nicotinamide riboside prevents oxidative stress and organ injury in sepsis. Free Radic Biol Med 2018;123:125-37. View abstract.
  • Johnson S, Imai SI. NAD+ biosynthesis, aging, and disease. F1000Res 2018;7:132. View abstract.
  • Lee HJ, Yang SJ. Supplementation with nicotinamide riboside reduces brain inflammation and improves cognitive function in diabetic mice. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20(17). pii: E4196. View abstract.
  • Martens CR, Denman BA, Mazzo MR, et al. Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Nat Commun 2018;9(1):1286. View abstract.
  • Shi W, Hegeman MA, Doncheva A, Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein M, de Boer VCJ, Keijer J. High dose of dietary nicotinamide riboside induces glucose intolerance and white adipose tissue dysfunction in mice fed a mildly obesogenic diet. Nutrients 2019;11(10). pii: E2439. View abstract.
  • Teijeiro A, Djouder N. Nicotinamide riboside or IL-17A signaling blockers to prevent liver disorders. Oncoscience 2017;4(1-2):1-2. View abstract.
  • Trammell SA, Schmidt MS, Weidemann BJ, et al. Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans. Nat Commun 2016;7:12948. View abstract.
  • Trammell SA, Yu L, Redpath P, Migaud ME, Brenner C. Nicotinamide riboside is a major NAD+ precursor vitamin in cow milk. J Nutr 2016;146(5):957-63. View abstract.
  • Xie X, Gao Y, Zeng M, et al. Nicotinamide ribose ameliorates cognitive impairment of aged and Alzheimer's disease model mice. Metab Brain Dis 2019;34(1):353-66. View abstract.
  • Yoshino J, Baur JA, Imai SI. NAD+ intermediates: the biology and therapeutic potential of NMN and NR. Cell Metab 2018;27(3):513-28. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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