1-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-aminoethanol, 4-(2-Amino-1-hydroxyethyl)phenol, alpha-(Aminoethyl)-4-hydroxybenzenemethanol, alpha-(Aminoethyl)-p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, alpha-Aminoethyl-4-hydroxybenzylalkohol, Analet, Benzenemethanol, Alpha-(aminomethyl)-4-hydroxy-, Demethylsynephrine, Demethylated Synephrine, Norden, Norfen, Norphen, Norsympathol, Norsympatol, Norsynephrine, Octapamine, Octopamina, Octopamine Hydrochloride, Octopaminum, p-Hydroxyphenylethanolamine, p-Norsynephrin, p-Octopamine, para-Hydroxyphenylethanolamine, para-Octopamine, Paraoxyphenyl Aminoethanol, WV 562-Isooctyl amine.


Overview Information

Octopamine is a chemical that is found in bitter orange and other plants, and in the human body in small amounts. It is also made in the lab. Octopamine is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for use during competitive sports. Octopamine is found in some dietary supplements. However, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cautions against its use and is investigating whether octopamine should be allowed in dietary supplements.

Octopamine is commonly used for weight loss and athletic performance, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Octopamine is a chemical in the body that helps the brain and nervous system function normally. There isn't enough reliable information to know how octopamine supplements might work.

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Early research shows that taking octopamine does not help active men to exercise longer or feel less tired.
  • Weight loss.
  • As a stimulant.
  • Other uses.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of octopamine for these uses.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Octopamine is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Octopamine is very similar to another stimulant called synephrine, which might increase blood pressure and cause heart problems. Until more is known, do not take products with octopamine on the label.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if octopamine is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

High blood pressure: Octopamine might increase blood pressure. In theory, taking octopamine might make high blood pressure worse.

Surgery: Octopamine might increase blood pressure. In theory, taking octopamine might interfere with surgery by increasing blood pressure. Stop taking octopamine at least 2 weeks before surgery.



We currently have no information for OCTOPAMINE Interactions.



The appropriate dose of octopamine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for octopamine. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References


  • Beaumont RE, Cordery P, James LJ, Watson P. Supplementation with a low-dose of octopamine does not influence endurance cycling performance in recreationally active men. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(10):952-956. View abstract.
  • Bucci L, Chiaverelli R. Hepatic encephalopathy EEG and octopamine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1980;41(5):175-7. View abstract.
  • Bunzow JR, Sonders MS, Arttamangkul S, et al. Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and metabolites of the catecholamine neurotransmitters are agonists of a rat trace amine receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;60(6):1181-8. View abstract.
  • Carpéné C, Galitzky J, Fontana E, Atgié C, Lafontan M, Berlan M. Selective activation of beta3-adrenoceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1999;359(4):310-21. View abstract.
  • D'Andrea G, Granella F, Leone M, Perini F, Farruggio A, Bussone G. Abnormal platelet trace amine profiles in migraine with and without aura. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(8):968-72. View abstract.
  • D'Andrea G, Nordera G, Pizzolato G, et al. Trace amine metabolism in Parkinson's disease: low circulating levels of octopamine in early disease stages. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469(3):348-51. View abstract.
  • D'Andrea G, Terrazzino S, Leon A, et al. Elevated levels of circulating trace amines in primary headaches. Neurology 2004;62:1701-5. View abstract.
  • David JC, Coulon JF, Delacour J. Behavioural and neurochemical effects of intracerebroventricular administrations of p-octopamine in rats. Brain Res. 1982 10;241(2):299-306. View abstract.
  • Fontana E, Morin N, Prévot D, Carpéné C. Effects of octopamine on lipolysis, glucose transport and amine oxidation in mammalian fat cells. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;125(1):33-44. View abstract.
  • Health Canada. Synephrine, Octopamine and Caffeine Health Risk Assessment (HRA) Report. Approved May 16, 2011. Accessed November 6, 2019. Available at: https://www.nutratechinc.com/advz/Studies2011/Safety/S1%20Health%20Canada%200511.pdf.
  • Mercader J, Wanecq E, Chen J, Carpéné C. Isopropylnorsynephrine is a stronger lipolytic agent in human adipocytes than synephrine and other amines present in Citrus aurantium. J Physiol Biochem. 2011;67(3):443-52. View abstract.
  • Nespoli A, Bevilacqua G, Staudacher C, Rossi N, Salerno F, Castelli MR. Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperdynamic syndrome in cirrhosis. Role of false neurotransmitters. Arch Surg. 1981;116(9):1129-38. View abstract.
  • Pawar RS, Grundel E. Overview of regulation of dietary supplements in the USA and issues of adulteration with phenethylamines (PEAs). Drug Test Anal 2017;9:500-517. View abstract.
  • Penzak SR, Jann MW, Cold JA, et al. Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:1059-63. View abstract.
  • Smedema JP, Müller GJ. Coronary spasm and thrombosis in a bodybuilder using a nutritional supplement containing synephrine, octopamine, tyramine and caffeine. S Afr Med J. 2008;98(5):372-3. View abstract.
  • Thevis M, Koch A, Sigmund G, Thomas A, Schänzer W. Analysis of octopamine in human doping control samples. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26(5):610-5. View abstract.
  • U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Dietary supplement ingredient advisory list. https://www.fda.gov/food/dietary-supplement-products-ingredients/dietary-supplement-ingredient-advisory-list. Accessed September 19, 2019.
  • Visentin V, Morin N, Fontana E, et al. Dual action of octopamine on glucose transport into adipocytes: inhibition via beta3-adrenoceptor activation and stimulation via oxidation by amine oxidases. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2001;299:96-104. View abstract.
  • Zhao J, Wang M, Avula B, Khan IA. Detection and quantification of phenethylamines in sports dietary supplements by NMR approach. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018;151:347-355. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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