HEMP

OTHER NAME(S):

Cannabis Sativa, Cheungsam, Fiber Hemp, Fructus Cannabis, Hemp Cake, Hemp Extract, Hemp Flour, Hemp Flower, Hemp Heart, Hemp Leaf, Hemp Oil, Hemp Powder, Hemp Protein, Hemp Seed, Hemp Seed Oil, Hemp Seed Protein Isolate, Hemp Seed Protein Meal, Hemp Sprout, Hempseed Cake, Industrial Hemp, Mazain, Semen Cannabis, Shadanaj, Shahdaneh.

Overview

Overview Information

Hemp is a plant. It is the same species of plant as cannabis. But unlike cannabis, hemp contains very low levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), less than 0.3%. It is legal to sell hemp and hemp products in the U.S. But it is not legal to isolate cannabinoids from hemp to include in foods or dietary supplements. This is because one of the cannabinoids, called cannabidiol, is approved as a prescription drug. Since it's a prescription drug, it can't be included in dietary supplements. Hemp flowers, leaves, seed, seed oil, and protein are used as food and/or medicine.

Hemp is used for constipation, high cholesterol, eczema (atopic dermatitis), arthritis, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

Hemp is used to make cloth, cosmetics, rope, printer's ink, wood preservative, detergents, soaps, and lighting oil.

Don't confuse hemp with Canadian hemp, hemp agrimony, cannabis, or cannabidiol (CBD).

How does it work?

Hemp seed contains fats, protein, and other chemicals. The fats in hemp seed might help to reduce inflammation (swelling). Some chemicals in hemp seed help to promote bowel movements and lower blood pressure.
Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Taking hemp seed oil might relieve some symptoms of eczema, including dryness and itchiness. But it doesn't seem to work better than taking olive oil.
  • Inherited tendency towards high cholesterol (familial hypercholesterolemia). Early research shows that taking hemp seed oil doesn't lower cholesterol levels in children with familial hypercholesterolemia who are already following a low-fat diet.
  • Constipation.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • Arthritis.
  • Asthma.
  • Cancer.
  • Glaucoma.
  • Headache.
  • Hypertension.
  • Insomnia.
  • Malaria.
  • Menstrual cramps.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate hemp for these uses.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Hemp is LIKELY SAFE when the seed, seed oil, or seed protein is taken by mouth as food. Hemp is POSSIBLY SAFE when the seed oil is used as medicine for up to 6 months. Some people are allergic to hemp seed. There isn't enough reliable information to know if hemp flowers, hemp leaves, or hemp oil made from the flower or leaf is safe or what the side effects might be.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if hemp is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: There isn't enough information to know whether hemp can be safely used by children. Hemp seed oil has caused rare cases of sleepiness and blood shot eyes in children.

Allergy to cannabis: People who are allergic to cannabis might also be allergic to hemp. Use hemp with caution if you are allergic to cannabis.

Low blood pressure: Hemp protein might lower blood pressure. In some people this might make blood pressure fall too low. Use hemp protein with caution if you have low blood pressure.

Surgery: Hemp protein might lower blood pressure. In some people this might make blood pressure fall too low, especially during surgery. Stop using hemp protein at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for HEMP Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The appropriate dose of hemp depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for hemp. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Al-Khalifa A, Maddaford TG, Chahine MN, et al. Effect of dietary hempseed intake on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292(3):R1198-203. View abstract.
  • Alkhammash S, Tsui H, Thomson DMP. Cannabis and hemp seed allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(7):2429-2430.e1. View abstract.
  • Andres C. Important legislative and regulatory changes impacting the commercialization of cannabis, hemp, and CBD. Altern Ther Health Med. 2019;25(S2):36-38. View abstract.
  • Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, et al. Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat. 2005;16(2):87-94. View abstract.
  • Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. FDA Responds to Three GRAS Notices for Hemp Seed-Derived Ingredients for Use in Human Food. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/food/cfsan-constituent-updates/fda-responds-three-gras-notices-hemp-seed-derived-ingredients-use-human-food. Accessed December 20, 2019.
  • Cheng CW, Bian ZX, Zhu LX, Wu JC, Sung JJ. Efficacy of a Chinese herbal proprietary medicine (Hemp Seed Pill) for functional constipation. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(1):120-9. View abstract.
  • Chinello M, Scommegna S, Shardlow A, et al. Cannabinoid poisoning by hemp seed oil in a child. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017;33(5):344-345. View abstract.
  • Citti C, Linciano P, Panseri S, et al. Cannabinoid profiling of hemp seed oil by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:120. View abstract.
  • Del Bo' C, Deon V, Abello F, et al. Eight-week hempseed oil intervention improves the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phospholipids and the omega-3 index, but does not affect the lipid profile in children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia. Food Res Int. 2019;119:469-476. View abstract.
  • Frassinetti S, Moccia E, Caltavuturo L, et al. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts. Food Chem. 2018;262:56-66. View abstract.
  • Gavel NT, Edel AL, Bassett CM, et al. The effect of dietary hempseed on atherogenesis and contractile function in aortae from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Acta Physiol Hung. 2011;98(3):273-83. View abstract.
  • Girgih AT, Alashi A, He R, Malomo S, Aluko RE. Preventive and treatment effects of a hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(5):1237-46. View abstract.
  • Girgih AT, Alashi AM, He R, et al. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5652-66. View abstract.
  • House JD, Neufeld J, Leson G. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(22):11801-7. View abstract.
  • Jeong M, Cho J, Shin JI, et al. Hempseed oil induces reactive oxygen species- and C/EBP homologous protein-mediated apoptosis in MH7A human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synovial cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;154(3):745-52. View abstract.
  • Jin S, Lee MY. The ameliorative effect of hemp seed hexane extracts on the Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and lipogenesis in sebocytes. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202933. View abstract.
  • Kaul N, Kreml R, Austria JA, et al. A comparison of fish oil, flaxseed oil and hempseed oil supplementation on selected parameters of cardiovascular health in healthy volunteers. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:51-8. View abstract.
  • Lu XF, Jia MD, Zhang SS, Zhao LQ. Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(42):7563-7571. View abstract.
  • Mikulcová V, Kaspárková V, Humpolícek P, Bunková L. Formulation, characterization and properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions. Molecules. 2017;22(5). pii: E700. View abstract.
  • Moccia S, Siano F, Russo GL, et al. Antiproliferative and antioxidant effect of polar hemp extracts (Cannabis sativa L., Fedora cv.) in human colorectal cell lines. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2019:1-14. View abstract.
  • Montserrat-de la Paz S, Marín-Aguilar F, García-Giménez MD, Fernández-Arche MA. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(5):1105-10. View abstract.
  • Prociuk M, Edel A, Gavel N, et al. The effects of dietary hempseed on cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2006;11(3):198-205. View abstract.
  • Rezapour-Firouzi S, Arefhosseini SR, Ebrahimi-Mamaghani M, et al. Activity of liver enzymes in multiple sclerosis patients with Hot-nature diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention. Complement Ther Med. 2014;22(6):986-93. View abstract.
  • Rezapour-Firouzi S, Arefhosseini SR, Mehdi F, et al. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Hot-natured diet and co-supplemented hemp seed, evening primrose oils intervention in multiple sclerosis patients. Complement Ther Med 2013;21(5):473-80.
  • Richard MN, Ganguly R, Steigerwald SN, Al-Khalifa A, Pierce GN. Dietary hempseed reduces platelet aggregation. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5(2):424-5. View abstract.
  • Rodriguez-Martin NM, Toscano R, Villanueva A, et al. Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds. Food Funct. 2019;10(10):6732-6739. View abstract.
  • Saberivand A, Karimi I, Becker LA, et al. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hempseed) in the ovariectomized rat model of menopause. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010;32(7):467-73. View abstract.
  • Schwab US, Callaway JC, Erkkilä AT, Gynther J, Uusitupa MI, Järvinen T. Effects of hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and haemostatic factors. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45(8):470-7. View abstract.
  • Stadtmauer G, Beyer K, Bardina L, Sicherer SH. Anaphylaxis to ingestion of hempseed (Cannabis sativa). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(1):216-7. View abstract.
  • Statement from FDA Commissioner Scot Gottlieb, M.D., on signing of the Agriculture Improvement Act and the agency's regulation of products containing cannabis and cannabis-derived compounds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/statement-fda-commissioner-scott-gottlieb-md-signing-agriculture-improvement-act-and-agencys. (Accessed May 7, 2019).
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  • VanDolah HJ, Bauer BA, Mauck KF. Clinicians' Guide to cannabidiol and hemp oils. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(9):1840-1851. View abstract.
  • Yousofi M, Saberivand A, Becker LA, Karimi I. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats. Dev Psychobiol. 2011;53(4):402-12. View abstract.
  • Zanoni C, Aiello G, Arnoldi A, Lammi C. Hempseed peptides exert hypocholesterolemic effects with a statin-like mechanism. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65(40):8829-8838. View abstract.

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CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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