HYDROXYMETHYLBUTYRATE (HMB)

OTHER NAME(S):

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, B-Hydroxy B-Methylbutyrate Monohydreate, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyric Acid, Calcium B-Hydroxy B-Methylbutyrate Monohydrate, Calcium HMB, Hidroximetilbutirato, HMB de Calcium, Hydroxyméthylbutyrate, Hydroxymethyl Butyrate, Hydroxyméthyl Butyrate.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) is a chemical that is produced when the body breaks down leucine. Leucine is an amino acid, one of the building blocks of protein. People use HMB to make medicine.

HMB is used for increasing the benefits from weight training and exercise; and for treating diseases of the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disease), high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. In combination with the amino acids arginine and glutamine, HMB is also used for treating weight loss, weakness, and diarrhea in people with AIDS (AIDS-related wasting).

How does it work?

HMB might promote muscle growth. It seems to reduce the destructive breakdown of muscle in people with AIDS.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Increasing body weight and muscle in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Taking HMB by mouth, along with the amino acids arginine and glutamine, seems to increase body weight and lean body mass in people with AIDS when used for 8 weeks. This combination may also improve the way the immune system works in these people.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. There is conflicting evidence about the usefulness of HMB for weight training. Some research suggests that taking HMB by mouth, alone or along with other supplements, might increase strength, improve body composition, and reduce muscle damage when used during resistance training or intense endurance exercises. However, other research suggests that HMB does not improve these outcomes. The reason for the conflicting results is not entirely clear. There is some evidence that HMB might be more effective in people who are just beginning to train than in well-trained athletes.
  • Disease-related weight loss (cachexia). Some research shows that taking HMB by mouth, along with the amino acids arginine and glutamine, seems to increase body weight and lean body mass in people with cancer-related cachexia when used for 24 weeks. However, taking this combination does not seem to improve body weight or lean body mass in people with rheumatoid arthritis related-cachexia when taken for 12 weeks.
  • High cholesterol. Early research suggests that HMB can lower cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. Early research suggests that HMB can lower blood pressure.
  • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disease).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of HMB for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

HMB is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth, short-term. Doses of 3 grams per day or less for up to 8 weeks seem to be safe.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking HMB if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Interactions

Interactions?

We currently have no information for HYDROXYMETHYLBUTYRATE (HMB) Interactions.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For treatment of weight loss, weakness, and diarrhea related to AIDS (AIDS-related wasting): 3 grams HMB in combination with 14 grams each of arginine and glutamine in two divided doses daily.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • May, P. E., Barber, A., D'Olimpio, J. T., Hourihane, A., and Abumrad, N. N. Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine. Am.J.Surg. 2002;183(4):471-479. View abstract.
  • Mero, A. Leucine supplementation and intensive training. Sports Med 1999;27(6):347-358. View abstract.
  • Nonnecke, B. J., Franklin, S. T., and Nissen, S. L. Leucine and its catabolites alter mitogen-stimulated DNA synthesis by bovine lymphocytes. J Nutr 1991;121(10):1665-1672. View abstract.
  • O'Connor, D. M. and Crowe, M. J. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of highly trained athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43(1):64-68. View abstract.
  • Palisin, T. and Stacy, J. J. Beta-hydroxy-beta-Methylbutyrate and its use in athletics. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005;4(4):220-223. View abstract.
  • Ransone, J., Neighbors, K., Lefavi, R., and Chromiak, J. The effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate football players. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2003;17(1):34-39. View abstract.
  • Rathmacher, J. A., Nissen, S., Panton, L., Clark, R. H., Eubanks, May P., Barber, A. E., D'Olimpio, J., and Abumrad, N. N. Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2004;28(2):65-75. View abstract.
  • Smith, H. J., Mukerji, P., and Tisdale, M. J. Attenuation of proteasome-induced proteolysis in skeletal muscle by {beta}-hydroxy-{beta}-methylbutyrate in cancer-induced muscle loss. Cancer Res 1-1-2005;65(1):277-283. View abstract.
  • Smith, H. J., Wyke, S. M., and Tisdale, M. J. Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Cancer Res 12-1-2004;64(23):8731-8735. View abstract.
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  • Tisdale, M. J. Clinical anticachexia treatments. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006;21(2):168-174. View abstract.
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  • Biglino, G. and Nano, G. M. Constituents of the roots of Bryonia dioica Jacq. Farmaco Sci 1967;22(2):140-151. View abstract.
  • Cattel, L., Balliano, G., Caputo, O., and Viola, F. Biosynthesis of cucurbitacins in Bryonia dioica seedlings. Planta Med 1981;41(4):328-336. View abstract.
  • de Oliveira, C. C., de Oliveira, S. M., Godoy, L. M., Gabardo, J., and Buchi, Dde F. Canova, a Brazilian medical formulation, alters oxidative metabolism of mice macrophages. J Infect. 2006;52(6):420-432. View abstract.
  • FOWDEN, L. A new asparagine derivative, N4-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-L-asparagine, from bryony (Bryonia dioica). Biochem.J. 1961;81:154-156. View abstract.
  • Tisdale, M. J. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a therapeutic target for muscle wasting. J Support.Oncol. 2005;3(3):209-217. View abstract.
  • van Someren, K. A., Edwards, A. J., and Howatson, G. Supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) reduces signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2005;15(4):413-424. View abstract.
  • Vukovich, M. D. and Dreifort, G. D. Effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate on the onset of blood lactate accumulation and V(O)(2) peak in endurance-trained cyclists. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2001;15(4):491-497. View abstract.
  • Vukovich, M. D., Slater, G., Macchi, M. B., Turner, M. J., Fallon, K., Boston, T., and Rathmacher, J. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) kinetics and the influence of glucose ingestion in humans. J Nutr Biochem 2001;12(11):631-639. View abstract.
  • Williams, J. Z., Abumrad, N., and Barbul, A. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition. Ann.Surg. 2002;236(3):369-374. View abstract.
  • Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:133-9. View abstract.
  • Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17:558-66.. View abstract.
  • Nissen S, Sharp R, Ray M, et al. Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:2095-104. View abstract.
  • Nissen S, Sharp RL, Panton L, et al. B-Hydroxy-B-Methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. J Nutr 2000;130:1937-45. View abstract.
  • Nissen, S. L., Sharp, R. L. Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol 2003;94(2):651-9. View abstract.
  • Paddon-Jones D, Keech A, Jenkins D. Short-term beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation does not reduce symptoms of eccentric muscle damage. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001;11:442-50. View abstract.
  • Panton LB, Rathmacher JA, Baier S, et al. Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (hmb) during resistance training. Nutrition 2000;16:734-9. View abstract.
  • Slater G, Jenkins D, Logan P, et al. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001;11:384-96. View abstract.
  • Slater GJ, Jenkins D. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growth and strength. Sports Med 2000;30:105-16.. View abstract.

More Resources for HYDROXYMETHYLBUTYRATE (HMB)

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