Corpus Luteum Hormone, Hormone de Grossesse, Hormone du Corps Jaune, Hormone Lutéale, Hormone Progestative, Luteal Hormone, Luteohormone, Lutine, NSC-9704, Pregnancy Hormone, Pregnanedione, Prégnanedione, Progestational Hormone, Progesterona, Progestérone, Progesteronum, 4-Pregnene-3; 20-Dione.


Overview Information

Progesterone is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body. It can also be made in a laboratory.

"Progestin" is a general term for a substance that causes some or all of the biologic effects of progesterone. The term "progestin" is sometimes used to refer to the progesterone made in the laboratory that is in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. However, all progesterone and progestin products are made in the laboratory. The term "natural progesterone" is really a misnomer. "Natural progesterones," including the prescription products Crinone and Prometrium, are made from a chemical called diosgenin that is isolated from wild yam or soy. In the laboratory, diosgenin is converted to progesterone. The human body is not able to make progesterone from diosgenin, so eating wild yam or soy will not boost your progesterone levels.

Over-the-counter (OTC) progesterone products may not contain progesterone concentrations as labeled. Also, topical progesterone products (preparations applied to the skin) marketed as cosmetics require no FDA approval prior to marketing. There is currently no limit on the amount of progesterone allowed in cosmetic products. In 1993 the FDA proposed a rule to limit the amount of progesterone in these products, but this rule was never finalized.

Women commonly take progesterone to help restart menstrual periods that unexpectedly stopped (amenorrhea), treat abnormal uterine bleeding associated with hormonal imbalance, and treat severe symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Progesterone is also used in combination with the hormone estrogen to "oppose estrogen" as part of hormone replacement therapy. If estrogen is given without progesterone, estrogen increases the risk of uterine cancer.

Progesterone is also used for a variety of other conditions not listed above, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

How does it work?

Progesterone is a hormone released by the ovaries. Changing progesterone levels can contribute to abnormal menstrual periods and menopausal symptoms. Progesterone is also necessary for implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus and for maintaining pregnancy.

Lab-made progesterone is used to imitate the functions of the progesterone released by the ovaries.


Uses & Effectiveness?

Likely Effective for

  • Absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea). Taking progesterone by mouth and applying progesterone gel into the vagina are effective strategies for treating absence of menstrual periods in premenopausal women. Micronized progesterone is FDA-approved for this use, as is intravaginal progesterone gel (Crinone 4%).
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Micronized progesterone (Prometrium) is FDA-approved for use with estrogen as a component of HRT. Research shows that adding progesterone to HRT protects against side effects of estrogen.
  • Inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility). Intravaginal progesterone gel (Crinone 8%) is FDA-approved for use as a part of infertility treatment in women. Some research suggests that applying progesterone intravaginally and injecting it into the muscle may have similar effectiveness for increasing pregnancy rates as giving it by mouth. Also, research suggests that intravaginal progesterone seems to be as effective for pregnancy rates as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

Possibly Effective for

  • Abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia). Some research suggests that applying progesterone (Crinone) into the vagina prevents endometrial hyperplasia in women with an intact uterus that are taking estrogen replacement therapy. Other early research shows that a specific intravaginal progesterone cream may help reverse abnormal thickening of the endometrium and decrease vaginal bleeding in premenopausal women with non-cancerous endometrial hyperplasia.
  • Breast pain (mastalgia). Some research suggests that applying progesterone (Crinone) into the vagina seems to reduce breast pain and tenderness in women with non-cancerous breast disease.
  • Symptoms of menopause. Some research suggests that applying a specific progesterone cream (Progest) to the skin reduces symptoms such as hot flashes in menopausal women.
  • Preterm birth. Most research suggests that applying progesterone gel or inserts into the vagina, alone or along with therapy to delay labor (tocolytic therapy), reduces the risk of premature birth in some women at high risk of premature birth. However, other research suggests that applying progesterone gel into the vagina does not decrease premature birth rates in women with a history of premature birth. The effect of progesterone on premature birth in women with twin pregnancies is not clear.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • A skin condition that mainly affects the genital and anal areas (lichen sclerosus). Applying progesterone into the vagina does not seem to improve symptoms of vulval lichen sclerosus. In fact, progesterone seems to be less effective than clobetasol (Temovate) for treating this condition.
  • Miscarriage. Most research shows that applying progesterone into the vagina does not reduce the risk of having a miscarriage in women who are bleeding during pregnancy or with a history of miscarriages in the past. Also, injecting progesterone and another steroid hormone into the muscle after undergoing a test used to diagnose birth defects (called an amniocentesis) does not seem to reduce the risk of miscarriage or preterm delivery. However, some early research suggests that taking progesterone by mouth might reduce the risk of miscarriage in women who are bleeding during pregnancy.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Although some clinical research suggests that applying progesterone into the vagina or the rectum before menstruation reduces symptoms of PMS, most evidence shows that giving progesterone by mouth or rectally does not reduce PMS symptoms.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Withdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines. Some research suggests that taking micronized progesterone by mouth may not be effective for relieving symptoms of withdrawal and for helping people to abstain from taking diazepam.
  • Heart disease. Early research suggests that applying progesterone into the vagina may increase exercise endurance compared to taking a similar steroidal drug (medroxyprogesterone) by mouth in women with heart disease or women that previously experienced a heart attack.
  • Cocaine use disorder. Early research suggests that taking progesterone by mouth does not decrease the risk of cocaine use in methadone-stabilized male cocaine users.
  • Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis). Some research suggests that applying progesterone to the skin is not effective for increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Other research shows that applying progesterone to the skin for 2 years may be as effective for preventing bone loss as drinking isoflavone-containing soy milk. However, the combination of soy milk plus progesterone seems to result greater bone loss than either single treatment alone.
  • Depression after childbirth (postpartum). Early research suggests that applying progesterone into the rectum does not reduce symptoms of postpartum depression.
  • A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Early research suggests that single injections of progesterone reduce blood pressure, swelling, and other symptoms in women with pre-eclampsia.
  • Injury to the brain, spine, or nerves (neurological trauma). Some research suggests that injecting progesterone soon after brain injury prevents death and disability. However, other research suggests that progesterone does not decrease the frequency of death or disability.
  • Bloating.
  • Decreased sex drive.
  • Fatigue.
  • "Foggy thinking".
  • Headaches.
  • Increased blood clotting.
  • Irritability.
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
  • Memory loss.
  • Thyroid problems.
  • Treating or preventing allergies affected by hormones.
  • Uterine cancer.
  • Uterine fibroids.
  • Water retention.
  • Weight gain.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of progesterone for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: The progesterone prescription products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people when used by mouth with the advice and care of a healthcare professional.

When applied to the skin: The progesterone prescription products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people when applied to the skin with the advice and care of a healthcare professional.

When given as a shot: The progesterone prescription products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people when injected into the muscle with the advice and care of a healthcare professional.

When applied into the vagina: The progesterone prescription products that have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are LIKELY SAFE for most people when applied into the vagina with the advice and care of a healthcare professional.

However, progesterone can cause many side effects including stomach upset, changes in appetite, weight gain, fluid retention and swelling (edema), fatigue, acne, drowsiness or insomnia, allergic skin rashes, hives, fever, headache, depression, breast discomfort or enlargement, premenstrual syndrome (PMS)-like symptoms, altered menstrual cycles, irregular bleeding, and other side effects.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Intravaginal progesterone gel is LIKELY SAFE when used as part of infertility treatment or to prevent premature birth. However, progesterone is LIKELY UNSAFE when used during pregnancy for any other purpose.

There isn't enough reliable information to know if progesterone is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Arterial disease: Don't use progesterone if you have arterial disease.

Breast cancer: Avoid use unless you are directed to do so by your healthcare provider.

Depression: Get your healthcare provider's advice first before using progesterone if you have major depression now or a history of major depression.

Liver disease: Progesterone might make liver disease worse. Don;t use it.

Porphyria: Progesterone might cause an attack of porphyria. Don't use it.

Vaginal bleeding: If you have undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, don't use progesterone.



Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

  • Estrogens interacts with PROGESTERONE

    Progesterone and estrogen are both hormones. They are often taken together. Progesterone can decrease some of the side effects of estrogen. But progesterone might also decrease the beneficial effects of estrogen. Taking progesterone along with estrogen might cause breast tenderness.

    Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For hormone replacement therapy (HRT): 200 mg micronized progesterone (Prometrium) per day is typically taken for 12 days of a 25-day cycle with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens.
  • For inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility): 300 mg micronized progesterone per day is usually taken for about 30 days after the embryo has been placed in the uterus.
  • For preventing preterm birth: 100 mg micronized progesterone twice daily starting at week 20 of pregnancy has been used.
  • For symptoms of menopause: 20 mg progesterone cream (equivalent to 1/4 teaspoon Progest cream) is typically applied daily to rotating places on the body including upper arms, thighs, or breasts.
  • For breast pain (mastalgia): a typical dose of 4 grams of vaginal cream containing 2.5% natural progesterone is placed inside the vagina from the 19th to the 25th day of a 28-day cycle.
  • For absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea): one applicator (90 mg) of progesterone gel (Crinone 4% or 8%) is typically placed inside the vagina every other day for 6 days per month.
  • For reducing abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia): a dose of 90 mg (Crinone 8%) or 100 mg progesterone cream placed inside the vagina daily from day 10 to day 25 or on days 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, and 27 of a 28-day cycle has been used.
  • For inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility): 90 mg progesterone (Crinone 8%) or 100-600 mg of other types of progesterone have been placed inside the vagina every day for about 2 weeks after the embryo has been placed in the uterus.
  • For preventing premature labor: 90-400 mg progesterone in the form of gel or an insert has been placed in the vagina every day starting at about 18-22 weeks of pregnancy.
  • For inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility): 50-100 mg progesterone each day with in vitro fertilization has been used.

View References


  • Abate, A., Perino, M., Abate, F. G., Brigandi, A., Costabile, L., and Manti, F. Intramuscular versus vaginal administration of progesterone for luteal phase support after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. A comparative randomized study. Clin.Exp.Obstet.Gynecol. 1999;26(3-4):203-206. View abstract.
  • Al, Kadri H., Hassan, S., Al-Fozan, H. M., and Hajeer, A. Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD005997. View abstract.
  • Allen, W. M. Physiology of the corpus luteum, V: the preparation and some chemical properties of progestin, a hormone of the corpus luteum which produces progestational proliferation. 1930;
  • Aloia, J. F., Vaswani, A., Yeh, J. K., Ross, P. L., Flaster, E., and Dilmanian, F. A. Calcium supplementation with and without hormone replacement therapy to prevent postmenopausal bone loss. Ann.Intern.Med. 1-15-1994;120(2):97-103. View abstract.
  • Andersch, B. and Hahn, L. Progesterone treatment of premenstrual tension--a double blind study. J.Psychosom.Res. 1985;29(5):489-493. View abstract.
  • Andreen, L., Sundstrom-Poromaa, I., Bixo, M., Andersson, A., Nyberg, S., and Backstrom, T. Relationship between allopregnanolone and negative mood in postmenopausal women taking sequential hormone replacement therapy with vaginal progesterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005;30(2):212-224. View abstract.
  • Artini, P. G., Volpe, A., Angioni, S., Galassi, M. C., Battaglia, C., and Genazzani, A. R. A comparative, randomized study of three different progesterone support of the luteal phase following IVF/ET program. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1995;18(1):51-56. View abstract.
  • Beckers, N. G., Laven, J. S., Eijkemans, M. J., and Fauser, B. C. Follicular and luteal phase characteristics following early cessation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist during ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization. Hum.Reprod. 2000;15(1):43-49. View abstract.
  • Belaisch-Allart J, de Mouzon J. Effect of luteal phase supplementation in an IVF programme after ovarian stimulation by LH-RH analogs:multicentric analysis [Effet de la supplémentation de la phase lutéale dans un programme de fécondation in vitro après stimulation de l'ovulation par les agonistes du LHRH. Journées de périconceptologie 1988;vol. 16, no7-8: pp. 654-656 (9 ref.).
  • Belaisch-Allart, J., Testart, J., Fries, N., Forman, R. G., and Frydman, R. The effect of dydrogesterone supplementation in an IVF programme. Hum.Reprod. 1987;2(3):183-185. View abstract.
  • Berle P, Budenz M Michaelis J.
  • Bloch, M., Schmidt, P. J., Danaceau, M., Murphy, J., Nieman, L., and Rubinow, D. R. Effects of gonadal steroids in women with a history of postpartum depression. Am.J.Psychiatry 2000;157(6):924-930. View abstract.
  • Bonduelle, M., Walker, J. J., and Calder, A. A. A comparative study of danazol and norethisterone in dysfunctional uterine bleeding presenting as menorrhagia. Postgrad.Med.J. 1991;67(791):833-836. View abstract.
  • Borna, S. and Sahabi, N. Progesterone for maintenance tocolytic therapy after threatened preterm labour: a randomised controlled trial. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 2008;48(1):58-63. View abstract.
  • Bronson, Phyllis J. Mood biochemistry of women at mid-life.. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 2001;Vol 16(3):pp. 141-154.
  • Buyru F, Yalcin O Kovanci E Turfanda A. Danazol therapy in dysfunctional uterine bleeding [Turkish]. Istanbul Tip Fakultesi Mecmuasi 1995;
  • Cameron, I. T., Haining, R., Lumsden, M. A., Thomas, V. R., and Smith, S. K. The effects of mefenamic acid and norethisterone on measured menstrual blood loss. Obstet.Gynecol. 1990;76(1):85-88. View abstract.
  • Cameron, I. T., Leask, R., Kelly, R. W., and Baird, D. T. The effects of danazol, mefenamic acid, norethisterone and a progesterone-impregnated coil on endometrial prostaglandin concentrations in women with menorrhagia. Prostaglandins 1987;34(1):99-110. View abstract.
  • Chouinard, G., Steinberg, S., and Steiner, W. Estrogen-progesterone combination: another mood stabilizer? Am.J.Psychiatry 1987;144(6):826. View abstract.
  • Chua, W. L., de Izquierdo, S. A., Kulkarni, J., and Mortimer, A. Estrogen for schizophrenia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2005;(4):CD004719. View abstract.
  • Claman, P., Domingo, M., and Leader, A. Luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization using gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue before ovarian stimulation: a prospective randomized study of human chorionic gonadotrophin versus intramuscular progesterone. Hum.Reprod. 1992;7(4):487-489. View abstract.
  • Clifford, K., Rai, R., Watson, H., Franks, S., and Regan, L. Does suppressing luteinising hormone secretion reduce the miscarriage rate? Results of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 6-15-1996;312(7045):1508-1511. View abstract.
  • Colwell, K. A. and Tummon, I. S. Elevation of serum progesterone with oral micronized progesterone after in vitro fertilization. A randomized, controlled trial. J.Reprod.Med. 1991;36(3):170-172. View abstract.
  • Corrado, F., Dugo, C., Cannata, M. L., Di, Bartolo M., Scilipoti, A., and Carlo, Stella N. A randomised trial of progesterone prophylaxis after midtrimester amniocentesis. Eur.J.Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 1-10-2002;100(2):196-198. View abstract.
  • Coutinho, E. M., De Souza, J. C., Barbosa, I. C., and Dourado, Silva, V. Long-lasting ovulation inhibition with a new injectable progestagen ORG-2154. Contraception 1982;25(6):551-560. View abstract.
  • Coutinho, Walmir, Appolinário, José C., Póvoa, Luiz C., and Meirelles, Ricardo. Terapia hormonal e os sintomas psíquicos na menopausa. Parte 2--Estudo duplo-cego dos efeitos da progesterona natural sobre os sintomas psíquicos da menopausa. = Hormonal therapy and the psychiatric symptoms in menopause: II. Double-blind study on the effects of natural progesterone on the affective symptoms in menopause.. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria 1995;Vol 44(5),pp. 223-229.
  • Crammer, J. L. Premenstrual depression, cortisol and oestradiol treatment. Psychol.Med. 1986;16(2):451-455. View abstract.
  • Cutler, S. M., VanLandingham, J. W., Murphy, A. Z., and Stein, D. G. Slow-release and injected progesterone treatments enhance acute recovery after traumatic brain injury. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2006;84(3):420-428. View abstract.
  • da Fonseca, E. B., Bittar, R. E., Carvalho, M. H., and Zugaib, M. Prophylactic administration of progesterone by vaginal suppository to reduce the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth in women at increased risk: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2003;188(2):419-424. View abstract.
  • Dalton, K. Ante-natal progesterone and intelligence. Br.J.Psychiatry 1968;114(516):1377-1382. View abstract.
  • Dalton, K. Controlled trials in the prophylactic value of progesterone in the treatment of pre-eclamptic toxaemia. J.Obstet.Gynaecol.Br.Emp. 1962;69:463-468. View abstract.
  • Dalton, K. Prenatal progesterone and educational attainments. Br.J.Psychiatry 1976;129:438-442. View abstract.
  • Daly, R. C., Schmidt, P. J., Davis, C. L., Danaceau, M. A., and Rubinow, D. R. Effects of gonadal steroids on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in women with PMS and controls. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26(6):539-549. View abstract.
  • Daya, S. and Gunby, J. L. WITHDRAWN: Luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(3):CD004830. View abstract.
  • de, Lignieres B., Dennerstein, L., and Backstrom, T. Influence of route of administration on progesterone metabolism. Maturitas 1995;21(3):251-257. View abstract.
  • de, Wit H., Schmitt, L., Purdy, R., and Hauger, R. Effects of acute progesterone administration in healthy postmenopausal women and normally-cycling women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2001;26(7):697-710. View abstract.
  • Deligdisch, L. Effects of hormone therapy on the endometrium. Mod.Pathol. 1993;6(1):94-106. View abstract.
  • Denis, C., Fatseas, M., Lavie, E., and Auriacombe, M. Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine mono-dependence management in outpatient settings. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;3:CD005194. View abstract.
  • Dennis, C. L. Preventing postpartum depression part I: a review of biological interventions. Can.J.Psychiatry 2004;49(7):467-475. View abstract.
  • Dennis, C. L., Ross, L. E., and Herxheimer, A. Oestrogens and progestins for preventing and treating postpartum depression. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(4):CD001690. View abstract.
  • Dodd, J. M., Flenady, V., Cincotta, R., and Crowther, C. A. Prenatal administration of progesterone for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(1):CD004947. View abstract.
  • El-Zibdeh, M. Y. Dydrogesterone in the reduction of recurrent spontaneous abortion. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2005;97(5):431-434. View abstract.
  • Facchinetti, F., Paganelli, S., Comitini, G., Dante, G., and Volpe, A. Cervical length changes during preterm cervical ripening: effects of 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 2007;196(5):453-454. View abstract.
  • Ferre, F., Uzan, M., Janssens, Y., Tanguy, G., Jolivet, A., Breuiller, M., Sureau, C., and Cedard, L. Oral administration of micronized natural progesterone in late human pregnancy. Effects on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in the plasma, placenta, and myometrium. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1-1-1984;148(1):26-34. View abstract.
  • Fonseca, E. B., Celik, E., Parra, M., Singh, M., and Nicolaides, K. H. Progesterone and the risk of preterm birth among women with a short cervix. N.Engl.J.Med. 8-2-2007;357(5):462-469. View abstract.
  • Ford, O., Lethaby, A., Roberts, H., and Mol, B. W. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2009;(2):CD003415. View abstract.
  • Fraser, I. S. Treatment of ovulatory and anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding with oral progestogens. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1990;30(4):353-356. View abstract.
  • Freeman, E. W., Rickels, K., and Sondheimer, S. J. Course of premenstrual syndrome symptom severity after treatment. Am.J.Psychiatry 1992;149(4):531-533. View abstract.
  • Gerhard, I., Gwinner, B., Eggert-Kruse, W., and Runnebaum, B. Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone substitution in threatened abortion. Biol.Res.Pregnancy.Perinatol. 1987;8(1 1ST Half):26-34. View abstract.
  • Geusa S, Causio F Marinaccio M Stanziano A Sarcina E. Luteal phase support with progesterone in IVF/ET cycles: a prospective, randomized study comparing vaginal and intramuscular administration [abstract]. Human Reproduction 2001;
  • Girdler, S. S., O'Briant, C., Steege, J., Grewen, K., and Light, K. C. A comparison of the effect of estrogen with or without progesterone on mood and physical symptoms in postmenopausal women. J.Womens Health Gend.Based.Med. 1999;8(5):637-646. View abstract.
  • Golan, A., Herman, A., Soffer, Y., Bukovsky, I., Caspi, E., and Ron-El, R. Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a better luteal support than progesterone in ultrashort gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist/menotrophin in-vitro fertilization cycles. Hum.Reprod. 1993;8(9):1372-1375. View abstract.
  • Gregoire, A. J., Kumar, R., Everitt, B., Henderson, A. F., and Studd, J. W. Transdermal oestrogen for treatment of severe postnatal depression. Lancet 4-6-1996;347(9006):930-933. View abstract.
  • Groswasser, Z., Cohen, M., and Keren, O. Female TBI patients recover better than males. Brain Inj. 1998;12(9):805-808. View abstract.
  • Gruber, C. J. and Huber, J. C. Differential effects of progestins on the brain. Maturitas 12-10-2003;46 Suppl 1:S71-S75. View abstract.
  • Haas, D. M. and Ramsey, P. S. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(2):CD003511. View abstract.
  • Haimov-Kochman, R. and Hochner-Celnikier, D. Hot flashes revisited: pharmacological and herbal options for hot flashes management. What does the evidence tell us? Acta Obstet Gynecol.Scand 2005;84(10):972-979. View abstract.
  • Hartikainen-Sorri, A. L., Kauppila, A., and Tuimala, R. Inefficacy of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the prevention of prematurity in twin pregnancy. Obstet.Gynecol. 1980;56(6):692-695. View abstract.
  • Hauth, J. C., Gilstrap, L. C., III, Brekken, A. L., and Hauth, J. M. The effect of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate on pregnancy outcome in an active-duty military population. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 5-15-1983;146(2):187-190. View abstract.
  • Heinrich, A. B. and Wolf, O. T. Investigating the effects of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone treatment on mood, depressive symptoms, menopausal symptoms and subjective sleep quality in older healthy hysterectomized women: a questionnaire study. Neuropsychobiology 2005;52(1):17-23. View abstract.
  • Hickey, M., Higham, J., and Fraser, I. S. Progestogens versus oestrogens and progestogens for irregular uterine bleeding associated with anovulation. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(4):CD001895. View abstract.
  • Hingham, J. M. and Shaw, R. W. A comparative study of danazol, a regimen of decreasing doses of danazol, and norethindrone in the treatment of objectively proven unexplained menorrhagia. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1993;169(5):1134-1139. View abstract.
  • Hogervorst, E., Yaffe, K., Richards, M., and Huppert, F. A. Hormone replacement therapy to maintain cognitive function in women with dementia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD003799. View abstract.
  • Hsiao, C. C., Liu, C. Y., and Hsiao, M. C. No correlation of depression and anxiety to plasma estrogen and progesterone levels in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Psychiatry Clin.Neurosci. 2004;58(6):593-599. View abstract.
  • Hunt, R., Davis, P. G., and Inder, T. Replacement of estrogens and progestins to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;(4):CD003848. View abstract.
  • Irvine, G. A., Campbell-Brown, M. B., Lumsden, M. A., Heikkila, A., Walker, J. J., and Cameron, I. T. Randomised comparative trial of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and norethisterone for treatment of idiopathic menorrhagia. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1998;105(6):592-598. View abstract.
  • Johnson, J. W., Austin, K. L., Jones, G. S., Davis, G. H., and King, T. M. Efficacy of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the prevention of premature labor. N.Engl.J.Med. 10-2-1975;293(14):675-680. View abstract.
  • Kauppila, A., Telimaa, S., Ronnberg, L., and Vuori, J. Placebo-controlled study on serum concentrations of CA-125 before and after treatment of endometriosis with danazol or high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate alone or after surgery. Fertil.Steril. 1988;49(1):37-41. View abstract.
  • KlopperA, MacNaughtonM. Hormones in recurrent abortion.. Jour-nal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1965;
  • Kupferminc, M. J., Lessing, J. B., Amit, A., Yovel, I., David, M. P., and Peyser, M. R. A prospective randomized trial of human chorionic gonadotrophin or dydrogesterone support following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Hum.Reprod. 1990;5(3):271-273. View abstract.
  • Kushner, S. A. and Guze, B. H. Treatment of psychomotor agitation and self-injurious behavior with estrogen and progesterone in a patient with Sanfilippo syndrome. Gen.Hosp.Psychiatry 2005;27(4):298-300. View abstract.
  • Lawrie, T. A., Hofmeyr, G. J., De, Jager M., Berk, M., Paiker, J., and Viljoen, E. A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial of postnatal norethisterone enanthate: the effect on postnatal depression and serum hormones. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1998;105(10):1082-1090. View abstract.
  • Le Vine L. Habitual abortion. A controlled clinical study of progestational therapy. Western Journal of Surgery 1964;;
  • Leonetti, H. B., Landes, J., Steinberg, D., and Anasti, J. N. Transdermal progesterone cream as an alternative progestin in hormone therapy. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2005;11(6):36-38. View abstract.
  • Lethaby, A. E., Cooke, I., and Rees, M. Progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2005;(4):CD002126. View abstract.
  • Lethaby, A. E., Cooke, I., and Rees, M. Progesterone/progestogen releasing intrauterine systems versus either placebo or any other medication for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD002126. View abstract.
  • Lethaby, A., Irvine, G., and Cameron, I. Cyclical progestogens for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD001016. View abstract.
  • Lethaby, A., Irvine, G., and Cameron, I. Cyclical progestogens for heavy menstrual bleeding. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(1):CD001016. View abstract.
  • Loh SKE, Leong NKY. Luteal phase support in IVF cycles - is intramuscular progesterone the therapy of choice? [abstract]. FertilitySociety of Australia XV Annual Meeting Abstract Book. 1996;Abs #O24.
  • Low, L. F., Anstey, K. J., Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., and Rodgers, B. Hormone replacement therapy and cognition in an Australian representative sample aged 60-64 years. Maturitas 4-20-2006;54(1):86-94. View abstract.
  • Ludwig, M., Finas, A., Katalinic, A., Strik, D., Kowalcek, I., Schwartz, P., Felberbaum, R., Kupker, W., Schopper, B., Al-Hasani, S., and Diedrich, K. Prospective, randomized study to evaluate the success rates using hCG, vaginal progesterone or a combination of both for luteal phase support. Acta Obstet.Gynecol.Scand. 2001;80(6):574-582. View abstract.
  • Lydeking-Olsen, E., Beck-Jensen, J. E., Setchell, K. D., and Holm-Jensen, T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss--a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur.J Nutr. 2004;43(4):246-257. View abstract.
  • Magill, P. J. Investigation of the efficacy of progesterone pessaries in the relief of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. progesterone Study Group. Br.J.Gen.Pract. 1995;45(400):589-593. View abstract.
  • Manber, R., Kuo, T. F., Cataldo, N., and Colrain, I. M. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on sleep-disordered breathing in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Sleep 3-15-2003;26(2):163-168. View abstract.
  • Martinez, F., Coroleu, B., Parera, N., Alvarez, M., Traver, J. M., Boada, M., and Barri, P. N. Human chorionic gonadotropin and intravaginal natural progesterone are equally effective for luteal phase support in IVF. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2000;14(5):316-320. View abstract.
  • Martorano, J. Case study: The use of the CEEG in treating premenstrual syndrome: An opportunity for treatment innovation. . Integrative Psychiatry, 1991;Vol 7(1), pp. 63-64.
  • Meakin, C. and Brockington, I. F. Failure of progesterone treatment in puerperal mania. Br.J.Psychiatry 1990;156:910. View abstract.
  • Meher, S. and Duley, L. Progesterone for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(4):CD006175. View abstract.
  • Meis, P. J., Klebanoff, M., Thom, E., Dombrowski, M. P., Sibai, B., Moawad, A. H., Spong, C. Y., Hauth, J. C., Miodovnik, M., Varner, M. W., Leveno, K. J., Caritis, S. N., Iams, J. D., Wapner, R. J., Conway, D., O'Sullivan, M. J., Carpenter, M., Mercer, B., Ramin, S. M., Thorp, J. M., Peaceman, A. M., and Gabbe, S. Prevention of recurrent preterm delivery by 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate. N.Engl.J.Med. 6-12-2003;348(24):2379-2385. View abstract.
  • Michener, W., Rozin, P., Freeman, E., and Gale, L. The role of low progesterone and tension as triggers of perimenstrual chocolate and sweets craving: some negative experimental evidence. Physiol Behav. 1999;67(3):417-420. View abstract.
  • Mizuki, Yasushi, Kajimura, Naofumi, Miyoshi, Akira, and Ushijima, Itsuko. Neuroendocrinological studies on patients with periodic psychosis of adolescence before and after menarche. Integrative Psychiatry 1991;Vol 7(3-4): pp. 241-247.
  • Moller K, Fuchs F. Double blind controlled trial of 6-methyl-17-acetoxyprogesterone in threatened abortion. Journal of Obstetrics andGynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1965;72:1042-4.
  • Murray, D. Recurrence of puerperal psychosis not prevented by prophylactic progesterone administration. J.Nerv.Ment.Dis. 1990;178(8):537-538. View abstract.
  • Nicoletti, A., Arabia, G., Pugliese, P., Nicoletti, G., Torchia, G., Condino, F., Morgante, L., Quattrone, A., and Zappia, M. Hormonal replacement therapy in women with Parkinson disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia: a crossover trial. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2007;30(5):276-280. View abstract.
  • Nyboe, Andersen A., Popovic-Todorovic, B., Schmidt, K. T., Loft, A., Lindhard, A., Hojgaard, A., Ziebe, S., Hald, F., Hauge, B., and Toft, B. Progesterone supplementation during early gestations after IVF or ICSI has no effect on the delivery rates: a randomized controlled trial. Hum.Reprod. 2002;17(2):357-361. View abstract.
  • O'Brien, J. M., Adair, C. D., Lewis, D. F., Hall, D. R., Defranco, E. A., Fusey, S., Soma-Pillay, P., Porter, K., How, H., Schackis, R., Eller, D., Trivedi, Y., Vanburen, G., Khandelwal, M., Trofatter, K., Vidyadhari, D., Vijayaraghavan, J., Weeks, J., Dattel, B., Newton, E., Chazotte, C., Valenzuela, G., Calda, P., Bsharat, M., and Creasy, G. W. Progesterone vaginal gel for the reduction of recurrent preterm birth: primary results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet.Gynecol. 2007;30(5):687-696. View abstract.
  • Overton, C. E., Lindsay, P. C., Johal, B., Collins, S. A., Siddle, N. C., Shaw, R. W., and Barlow, D. H. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of luteal phase dydrogesterone (Duphaston) in women with minimal to mild endometriosis. Fertil.Steril. 1994;62(4):701-707. View abstract.
  • Paetz D, Kruskemper G Gillich KH. Psychological test performance in hospitalized climacteric patients during treatment of internal disorders, with special emphasis on the effects of estrogens and progesterone. . Zeitschrift für Gerontologie. 1975;8(5):358-364.
  • Palagiano, A., Bulletti, C., Pace, M. C., DE, Ziegler D., Cicinelli, E., and Izzo, A. Effects of vaginal progesterone on pain and uterine contractility in patients with threatened abortion before twelve weeks of pregnancy. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2004;1034:200-210. View abstract.
  • Papiernik-Berkhauer E. Double blind study of an agent to prevent preterm delivery among women at increased risk [Etude en double aveugle d'un medicament prevenant la survenue prematuree de l'accouchement chez les femmes a risque eleve d'accouchement premature]. Edition Schering Serie IV 1970;Vol. 3:65-8.
  • Pisanty, S., Rafaely, B., and Polishuk, W. The effect of steroid hormones on buccal mucosa of menopausal women. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol. 1975;40(3):346-353. View abstract.
  • Porcu E. Intramuscular versus vaginal progesterone in assisted reproduction [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2003;Vol. 80(issue suppl3:S131 (Abs # P-32).)
  • Prentice, A., Deary, A. J., and Bland, E. Progestagens and anti-progestagens for pain associated with endometriosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2000;(2):CD002122. View abstract.
  • Preston, J. T., Cameron, I. T., Adams, E. J., and Smith, S. K. Comparative study of tranexamic acid and norethisterone in the treatment of ovulatory menorrhagia. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1995;102(5):401-406. View abstract.
  • Propst, A. M., Hill, J. A., Ginsburg, E. S., Hurwitz, S., Politch, J., and Yanushpolsky, E. H. A randomized study comparing Crinone 8% and intramuscular progesterone supplementation in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles. Fertil.Steril. 2001;76(6):1144-1149. View abstract.
  • Recker, R. R., Davies, K. M., Dowd, R. M., and Heaney, R. P. The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 6-1-1999;130(11):897-904. View abstract.
  • Redei, E. and Freeman, E. W. Daily plasma estradiol and progesterone levels over the menstrual cycle and their relation to premenstrual symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995;20(3):259-267. View abstract.
  • Reijnders, F. J., Thomas, C. M., Doesburg, W. H., Rolland, R., and Eskes, T. K. Endocrine effects of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate during early pregnancy: a double-blind clinical trial. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1988;95(5):462-468. View abstract.
  • Rettenbacher, M. A., Mechtcheriakov, S., Bergant, A., Brugger, A., and Fleischhacker, W. W. Improvement of psychosis during treatment with estrogen and progesterone in a patient with hypoestrogenemia. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2004;65(2):275-277. View abstract.
  • Richter MA, Haltvick R Shapiro SS. Progesterone treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Current Therapeutic Research. 1984;36(5, Sect 2):840-850.
  • Rigaud, A. S., Andre, G., Vellas, B., Touchon, J., and Pere, J. J. No additional benefit of HRT on response to rivastigmine in menopausal women with AD. Neurology 1-14-2003;60(1):148-149. View abstract.
  • Riis, B., Thomsen, K., and Christiansen, C. Does calcium supplementation prevent postmenopausal bone loss? A double-blind, controlled clinical study. N.Engl.J Med. 1-22-1987;316(4):173-177. View abstract.
  • Roglio, I., Giatti, S., Pesaresi, M., Bianchi, R., Cavaletti, G., Lauria, G., Garcia-Segura, L. M., and Melcangi, R. C. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral neuropathy. Brain Res.Rev. 2008;57(2):460-469. View abstract.
  • Rosenberg, S. M., Luciano, A. A., and Riddick, D. H. The luteal phase defect: the relative frequency of, and encouraging response to, treatment with vaginal progesterone. Fertil.Steril. 1980;34(1):17-20. View abstract.
  • Rouse, D. J., Caritis, S. N., Peaceman, A. M., Sciscione, A., Thom, E. A., Spong, C. Y., Varner, M., Malone, F., Iams, J. D., Mercer, B. M., Thorp, J., Sorokin, Y., Carpenter, M., Lo, J., Ramin, S., Harper, M., and Anderson, G. A trial of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate to prevent prematurity in twins. N.Engl.J.Med. 8-2-2007;357(5):454-461. View abstract.
  • Ryan, N. and Rosner, A. Quality of life and costs associated with micronized progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate in hormone replacement therapy for nonhysterectomized, postmenopausal women. Clin.Ther. 2001;23(7):1099-1115. View abstract.
  • Saarikoski, S., Yliskoski, M., and Penttila, I. Sequential use of norethisterone and natural progesterone in pre-menopausal bleeding disorders. Maturitas 1990;12(2):89-97. View abstract.
  • Sampson, G. A. Premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind controlled trial of progesterone and placebo. Br.J.Psychiatry 1979;135:209-215. View abstract.
  • Sandyk, R. Estrogen's impact on cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis. Int.J.Neurosci. 1996;86(1-2):23-31. View abstract.
  • Saucedo LLE, Galache VP Hernandez AS Santos HR Arenas ML Patrizio P. Randomized trial of three different forms of progesterone supplementation in ART: preliminary results [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2000;74((Suppl 1):S150 (Abs # P-175).)
  • Saucedo-de la Llata E, Batiza V Arenas L Santos R Galache P Hernandez-Ayup S et al. Progesterone for luteal support: randomized, prospective trial comparing vaginal and i.m. administration [abstract]. Human Reproduction 2003;
  • Schaller, J. L., Briggs, B., and Briggs, M. Progesterone organogel for premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J.Am.Acad.Child Adolesc.Psychiatry 2000;39(5):546-547. View abstract.
  • Schussler, P., Kluge, M., Yassouridis, A., Dresler, M., Held, K., Zihl, J., and Steiger, A. Progesterone reduces wakefulness in sleep EEG and has no effect on cognition in healthy postmenopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008;33(8):1124-1131. View abstract.
  • SHEARMAN, R. P. and GARRETT, W. J. Double-blind study of effect of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate on abortion rate. Br.Med.J. 2-2-1963;1(5326):292-295. View abstract.
  • Shippen, E. R. and West, W. J., Jr. Successful treatment of severe endometriosis in two premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor. Fertil.Steril. 2004;81(5):1395-1398. View abstract.
  • Shu, J., Miao, P., and Wang, R. J. [Clinical observation on effect of Chinese herbal medicine plus human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone in treating anticardiolipin antibody-positive early recurrent spontaneous abortion]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2002;22(6):414-416. View abstract.
  • Soderpalm, A. H., Lindsey, S., Purdy, R. H., Hauger, R., and Wit, de H. Administration of progesterone produces mild sedative-like effects in men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004;29(3):339-354. View abstract.
  • Sofuoglu, M., Mitchell, E., and Kosten, T. R. Effects of progesterone treatment on cocaine responses in male and female cocaine users. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2004;78(4):699-705. View abstract.
  • Sofuoglu, M., Poling, J., Gonzalez, G., Gonsai, K., Oliveto, A., and Kosten, T. R. Progesterone effects on cocaine use in male cocaine users maintained on methadone: a randomized, double-blind, pilot study. Exp.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2007;15(5):453-460. View abstract.
  • Song, Y. L. and Zhu, L. P. [The fetus protection effects of Zhixue Baotai Decoction on women of early threatened abortion with dark area surrounding pregnancy sac]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2007;27(11):1025-1028. View abstract.
  • Steffen, A. M., Thompson, L. W., Gallagher-Thompson, D., and Koin, D. Physical and psychosocial correlates of hormone replacement therapy with chronically stressed postmenopausal women. J.Aging Health 1999;11(1):3-26. View abstract.
  • Stein, D., Blumensohn, R., and Witztum, E. Perimenstrual psychosis among female adolescents: two case reports and an update of the literature. Int.J.Psychiatry Med. 2003;33(2):169-179. View abstract.
  • Strohl, K. P., Hensley, M. J., Saunders, N. A., Scharf, S. M., Brown, R., and Ingram, R. H., Jr. Progesterone administration and progressive sleep apneas. JAMA 3-27-1981;245(12):1230-1232. View abstract.
  • Sumita S, Sofat S Sr. Intramuscular versus intravaginal progesterone as luteal phase and early pregnancy support in patients undergoing IVF-ET [abstract]. Fertility and Sterility 2003;
  • SWYER, G. I. and DALEY, D. Progesterone implantation in habitual abortion. Br.Med.J. 5-16-1953;1(4819):1073-1077. View abstract.
  • Tognoni, G., Ferrario, L., Inzalaco, M., and Crosignani, P. G. Progestagens in threatened abortion. Lancet 12-6-1980;2(8206):1242-1243. View abstract.
  • Toh, Y. C., Jain, J., Rahnny, M. H., Bode, F. R., and Ross, D. Suppression of ovulation by a new subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (104 mg/0.65 mL) contraceptive formulation in Asian women. Clin.Ther. 2004;26(11):1845-1854. View abstract.
  • Torode HW, Porter RN Vaughan JI Saunders DM. Luteal phase support after in vitro fertilisation: a trial and rationale for selective use. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility 1987;5:255-61.
  • Trotter, A., Maier, L., Grill, H. J., Kohn, T., Heckmann, M., and Pohlandt, F. Effects of postnatal estradiol and progesterone replacement in extremely preterm infants. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999;84(12):4531-4535. View abstract.
  • Trotter, A., Maier, L., Grill, H. J., Wudy, S. A., and Pohlandt, F. 17Beta-estradiol and progesterone supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Pediatr.Res. 1999;45(4 Pt 1):489-493. View abstract.
  • Ugur M, Yenicesu O Ozcan S Keles G Gokmen O. A prospective randomized study comparing hCG, vaginalmicronized porgesterone and a combination regimen for luteal phase support in an in-vitro fertilization programme [abstract]. 2001;
  • Van der Meer YG, Benedek-Jaszmann LJ Van Loenen AC. Effect of high-dose progesterone on the pre-menstrual syndrome: A double-blind cross-over trial. . Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 1983;2(4):220-222.
  • Van der Meer YG, Loendersloot EW Van Loenen AC. Effect of high-dose progesterone in post-partum depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology.1 1984;3(1): 67-68.
  • Van Steirteghem, A. C., Smitz, J., Camus, M., Van, Waesberghe L., Deschacht, J., Khan, I., Staessen, C., Wisanto, A., Bourgain, C., and Devroey, P. The luteal phase after in-vitro fertilization and related procedures. Hum.Reprod. 1988;3(2):161-164. View abstract.
  • van Wingen, G. A., van, Broekhoven F., Verkes, R. J., Petersson, K. M., Backstrom, T., Buitelaar, J. K., and Fernandez, G. Progesterone selectively increases amygdala reactivity in women. Mol.Psychiatry 2008;13(3):325-333. View abstract.
  • van, Wingen G., van, Broekhoven F., Verkes, R. J., Petersson, K. M., Backstrom, T., Buitelaar, J., and Fernandez, G. How progesterone impairs memory for biologically salient stimuli in healthy young women. J.Neurosci. 10-17-2007;27(42):11416-11423. View abstract.
  • Vanselow, W., Dennerstein, L., Greenwood, K. M., and de, Lignieres B. Effect of progesterone and its 5 alpha and 5 beta metabolites on symptoms of premenstrual syndrome according to route of administration. J.Psychosom.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1996;17(1):29-38. View abstract.
  • Vercellini, P., De, Giorgi O., Oldani, S., Cortesi, I., Panazza, S., and Crosignani, P. G. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate versus an oral contraceptive combined with very-low-dose danazol for long-term treatment of pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. Am.J.Obstet.Gynecol. 1996;175(2):396-401. View abstract.
  • Vimpeli, T., Tinkanen, H., Huhtala, H., Ronnberg, L., and Kujansuu, E. Salivary and serum progesterone concentrations during two luteal support regimens used in in vitro fertilization treatment. Fertil.Steril. 2001;76(4):847-848. View abstract.
  • Wahabi, H. A., Abed Althagafi, N. F., and Elawad, M. Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(3):CD005943. View abstract.
  • Walpurger, V., Pietrowsky, R., Djahansouzi, S., and Wolf, O. T. No changes in event-related potentials with estrogen or estrogen plus progesterone treatment in healthy older hysterectomized women: results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;179(3):652-661. View abstract.
  • Wegesin, D. J. and Stern, Y. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and aging on cognition: evidence for executive dysfunction. Neuropsychol.Dev.Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol.Cogn 2007;14(3):301-328. View abstract.
  • Wentz, A. C., Herbert, C. M., Maxson, W. S., and Garner, C. H. Outcome of progesterone treatment of luteal phase inadequacy. Fertil.Steril. 1984;41(6):856-862. View abstract.
  • Whitehead, M. I., Townsend, P. T., Gill, D. K., Collins, W. P., and Campbell, S. Absorption and metabolism of oral progesterone. Br.Med.J. 3-22-1980;280(6217):825-827. View abstract.
  • Wolf, O. T., Heinrich, A. B., Hanstein, B., and Kirschbaum, C. Estradiol or estradiol/progesterone treatment in older women: no strong effects on cognition. Neurobiol.Aging 2005;26(7):1029-1033. View abstract.
  • Wong, Y. F., Loong, E. P., Mao, K. R., Tam, P. P., Panesar, N. S., Neale, E., and Chang, A. M. Salivary oestradiol and progesterone after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer using different luteal support regimens. Reprod.Fertil.Dev. 1990;2(4):351-358. View abstract.
  • Yoon, B. K., Kim, D. K., Kang, Y., Kim, J. W., Shin, M. H., and Na, D. L. Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, prospective study. Fertil.Steril. 2003;79(2):274-280. View abstract.
  • Yovich, J. L., Edirisinghe, W. R., and Cummins, J. M. Evaluation of luteal support therapy in a randomized controlled study within a gamete intrafallopian transfer program. Fertil.Steril. 1991;55(1):131-139. View abstract.
  • Yovich, J. L., Stanger, J. D., Yovich, J. M., and Tuvik, A. I. Assessment and hormonal treatment of the luteal phase of in vitro fertilization cycles. Aust.N.Z.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1984;24(2):125-130. View abstract.
  • Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., and Liu, G. [Clinical and experimental study on yun'an granule in treating threatened abortion]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2000;20(4):251-254. View abstract.
  • Zweifel, J. E. and O'Brien, W. H. A meta-analysis of the effect of hormone replacement therapy upon depressed mood. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997;22(3):189-212. View abstract.
  • Affinito P, Di Carlo C, Di Mauro P, et al. Endometrial hyperplasia: efficacy of a new treatment with a vaginal cream containing natural micronized progesterone. Maturitas 1994;20:191-8. View abstract.
  • Boelig RC, Zuppa AF, Kraft WK, Caritis S. Pharmacokinetics of vaginal progesterone in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019;221(3):263.e1-263.e7. View abstract.
  • Bracco GL, Carli P, Sonni L, et al. Clinical and histologic effects of topical treatments of vulval lichen sclerosus. A critical evaluation. J Reprod Med 1993;38:37-40. View abstract.
  • Brizot ML, Hernandez W, Liao AW, et al. Vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin gestations: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;213(1):82.e1-9. View abstract.
  • Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.
  • Burry KA, Paton PE, Hermsmeyer K. Percutaneous absorption of progesterone in postmenopausal women treated with transdermal estrogen. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:1504-11. View abstract.
  • Chen FP, Lee N, Soong YK. Changes in the lipoprotein profile in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. Effects of natural and synthetic progesterone. J Reprod Med 1998;43:568-74. View abstract.
  • Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R, Nicolaides K, et al. Vaginal progesterone vs. cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix, previous preterm birth, and singleton gestation: a systematic review and indirect comparison metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208(1):42.e1-42.e18. View abstract.
  • Coomarasamy A, Devall AJ, Cheed V, et al. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Bleeding in Early Pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(19):1815-1824. View abstract.
  • Coomarasamy A, Williams H, Truchanowicz E, et al. A randomized trial of progesterone in women with recurrent miscarriages. N Engl J Med 2015;373(22):2141-8. View abstract.
  • Cooper A, Spencer C, Whitehead MI, et al. Systemic absorption of progesterone cream from Progest cream in postmenopausal women. Lancet 1998;351:1255-6.
  • Cooper AJ, Whitehead MI. Correspondence. Lancet 1998;352:906.
  • Damario MA, Goudas VT, Session DR, et al. Crinone 8% vaginal progesterone gel results in lower embryonic implantation efficiency after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 1999;72:830-6. View abstract.
  • Dang VQ, Nguyen LK, Pham TD, et al. Pessary compared with vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with twin pregnancies and cervical length less than 38 mm: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2019;133(3):459-67. View abstract.
  • Darj E, Nilsson S, Axelsson O, et al. Clinical and endometrial effects of oestradiol and progesterone in post-menopausal women. Maturitas 1991;13:109-15. View abstract.
  • de Oliveira LA, Brizot ML, Liao AW, Bittar RE, Francisco RP, Zugaib M. Prenatal administration of vaginal progesterone and frequency of uterine contractions in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2016;95(4):436-43. View abstract.
  • El-refaie W, Abdelhafez MS, Badawy A. Vaginal progesterone for prevention of preterm labor in asymptomatic twin pregnancies with sonographic short cervix: a randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016;293(1):61-7. View abstract.
  • Espeland MA, Hogan PE, Fineberg SE, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on glucose and insulin concentrations. PEPI Investigators. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions. Diabetes Care 1998;21:1589-95. View abstract.
  • Espeland MA, Marcovina SM, Miller V, et al. Effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on lipoprotein(a) concentration. Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Investigators. Circulation 1998;97:979-86. View abstract.
  • FDA MedWatch. Summary of safety-related drug labeling changes approved by FDA May 1998. Crinone (progesterone) Gel. May 11, 1998. Available at:
  • FDA.
  • FDA. Guide to Inspections of Cosmetic Product Manufacturers: products containing estrogenic hormones, placental extract or vitamins. 2001. Available at:
  • Fitzpatrick LA, Pace C, Wiita B. Comparison of regimens containing oral micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on quality of life in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional survey. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9:381-7. View abstract.
  • Freeman EW, Rickels K, Sondheimer SJ, Polansky M. A double-blind trial of oral progesterone, alprazolam, and placebo in treatment of severe premenstrual syndrome. JAMA 1995;274:51-7. View abstract.
  • Freeman EW, Weinstock L, Rickels K, et al. A placebo-controlled study of effects of oral progesterone on performance and mood. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;33:293-8. View abstract.
  • Gibbons WE, Toner JP, Hamacher P, Kolm P. Experience with a novel vaginal progesterone preparation in a donor oocyte program. Fertil Steril 1998;69:96-101. View abstract.
  • Greendale GA, Reboussin BA, Hogan P, et al. Symptom relief and side effects of postmenopausal hormones: results from the Postmenopausal Interventions Trial. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:982-8. View abstract.
  • Haas DM, Hathaway TJ, Ramsey PS. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage in women with recurrent miscarriage of unclear etiology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;10:CD003511. View abstract.
  • Jarde A, Lutsiv O, Beyene J, McDonald SD. Vaginal progesterone, oral progesterone, 17-OHPC, cerclage, and pessary for preventing preterm birth in at-risk singleton pregnancies: an updated systematic review and network meta-analysis. BJOG. 2019;126(5):556-567. View abstract.
  • Koh KK, Jin DK, Yang SH, et al. Vascular effects of synthetic or natural progestagen combined with conjugated equine estrogen in healthy postmenopausal women. Circulation 2001;103:1961-6. View abstract.
  • Langer RD. Micronized progesterone: a new therapeutic option. Int J Fertil Womens Med 1999;44:67-73. View abstract.
  • Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, et al. Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:495-504.. View abstract.
  • Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:225-8. View abstract.
  • Licciardi FL, Kwiatkoski A, Noyes NL, et al. Oral versus intramuscular progesterone for in vitro fertilization: a prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril 1999;71:614-8. View abstract.
  • Ma J, Huang S, Qin S, You C, Zeng Y. Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;12:CD008409. View abstract.
  • Ma J, Huang S, Qin S, You C. Progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;10:CD008409. View abstract.
  • Martorano JT, Ahlgrimm M, Colbert T. Differentiating between natural progesterone and synthetic progestins: clinical implications for premenstrual syndrome and perimenopause management. Compr Ther 1998;24:336-9. View abstract.
  • Miles RA, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and endometrial tissue levels of progesterone after administration by intramuscular and vaginal routes: a comparative study. Fertil Steril 1994;62:485-90. View abstract.
  • Nappi C, Affinito P, Di Carlo C, et al. Double-blind controlled trial of progesterone vaginal cream treatment for cyclical mastodynia in women with benign breast disease. J Endocrinol Invest 1992;15:801-6. View abstract.
  • Norman JE, Mackenzie F, Owen P, Mactier H, Hanretty K, Cooper S, et al. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis. Lancet 2009;373(9680):2034-40. View abstract.
  • Norman JE, Marlow N, Messow CM, et al. Does progesterone prophylaxis to prevent preterm labour improve outcome? A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial (OPPTIMUM). Health Technol Assess. 2018;22(35):1-304. View abstract.
  • Norman JE, Marlow N, Messow CM, et al. Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial. Lancet. 2016 May 21;387(10033):2106-16. View abstract.
  • Perino M, Brigandi FG, Abate FG, et al. Intramuscular versus vaginal progesterone in assisted reproduction: a comparative study. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1997;24:228-31. View abstract.
  • Phy, J. L., Weiss, W. T., Weiler, C. R., and Damario, M. A. Hypersensitivity to progesterone-in-oil after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril 2003;80(5):1272-1275. View abstract.
  • Pouly JL, Bassil S, Frydman R, et al. Luteal support after in-vitro fertilization: Crinone 8%, a sustained release vaginal progesterone gel, versus Utrogestan, an oral micronized progesterone. Hum Reprod 1996;11:2085-9. View abstract.
  • Rai P, Rajaram S, Goel N, Ayalur Gopalakrishnan R, Agarwal R, Mehta S. Oral micronized progesterone for prevention of preterm birth. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2009;104(1):40-3. View abstract.
  • Rode L, Klein K, Nicolaides KH, Krampl-Bettelheim E, Tabor A; PREDICT Group. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT): a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of vaginal micronized progesterone. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38(3):272-80. View abstract.
  • Romero R, Nicolaides K, Conde-Agudelo A, et al. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206(2):124.e1-19. View abstract.
  • Rosano GM, Webb CM, Chierchia S, et al. Natural progesterone, but not medroxyprogesterone acetate, enhances the beneficial effect of estrogen on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36:2154-9.
  • Ross D, Cooper AJ, Pryse-Davies J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study of the endometrial effects of a vaginal progesterone gel in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:937-41. View abstract.
  • Salim R, Hakim M, Zafran N, Nachum Z, Romano S, Garmi G. Double-blind randomized trial of progesterone to prevent preterm birth in second-trimester bleeding. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2019;98(10):1318-25. View abstract.
  • Schüssler P, Kluge M, Adamczyk M, et al. Sleep after intranasal progesterone vs. zolpidem and placebo in postmenopausal women - A randomized, double-blind cross over study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018;92:81-86. View abstract.
  • Schweizer E, Case WG, Garcia-Espana F, et al. Progesterone co-administration in patients discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine therapy: effects on withdrawal severity and taper outcome. Psychopharmacol (Berl) 1995;117:424-9. View abstract.
  • Skolnick BE, Maas AI, Narayan RK, et al.; SYNAPSE Trial Investigators. A clinical trial of progesterone for severe traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371(26):2467-76. View abstract.
  • Smitz J, Devroey P, Faguer B, et al. A prospective randomized comparison of intramuscular or intravaginal natural progesterone as a luteal phase and early pregnancy supplement. Hum Reprod 1992;7:168-75. View abstract.
  • Sotiriadis A, Papatheodorou S, Makrydimas G. Perinatal outcome in women treated with progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012;40(3):257-66. View abstract.
  • Veysman, B., Vlahos, I., and Oshva, L. Pneumonitis and eosinophilia after in vitro fertilization treatment. Ann Emerg Med 2006;47(5):472-475. View abstract.
  • Wahabi HA, Fayed AA, Esmaeil SA, Bahkali KH. Progestogen for treating threatened miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;8:CD005943. View abstract.
  • Warren MP, Biller BMK, Shangold MM. A new clinical option for hormone replacement therapy in women with secondary amenorrhea: effects of cyclic administration of progesterone from the sustained-release vaginal gel Crinone (4% and 8%) on endometrial morphologic features and withdrawal bleeding. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:42-8. View abstract.
  • Wright DW, Yeatts SD, Silbergleit R, et al.; NETT Investigators. Very early administration of progesterone for acute traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2014;371(26):2457-66. View abstract.
  • Wyatt K, Dimmock P, Jones P, et al. Efficacy of progesterone and progestogens in management of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ 2001;323:776-80.. View abstract.
  • Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
  • Zorgniotti AW, Lizza EF. Effect of large doses of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res 1994;6:33-5. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased PROGESTERONE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department.Read More

More Resources for PROGESTERONE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty .