Alpha-lipoic acid is most commonly used for nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). High doses of alpha-lipoic acid are approved in Germany for the treatment of these nerve-related symptoms. It is also used for high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia) and obesity.
How does it work ?
Alpha-lipoic acid is used in the body to break down carbohydrates and to make energy for the other organs in the body.
Alpha-lipoic acid seems to work as an antioxidant, which means that it might provide protection to the brain under conditions of damage or injury. The antioxidant effects might also be helpful in certain liver diseases.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Possibly Effective for
- Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Taking 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth or by IV seems to improve symptoms such as burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms of people with diabetes. It may take 3 to 5 weeks of treatment for symptoms to improve. Lower doses of alpha-lipoic acid don't seem to work.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Taking alpha-lipoic acid for up to 4 years seems to lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with or without hyperlipidemia.
- Obesity. Some research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid for 2-48 weeks can slightly reduce body weight in adults who are overweight. Some research also shows that alpha-lipoic acid improves body weight in children who are overweight.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Liver disease in people who drink alcohol. Taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for up to 6 months does not improve liver function or reduce liver damage in people with alcohol-related liver disease.
- Altitude sickness. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with vitamin C and vitamin E does not seem to prevent altitude sickness.
- Nerve damage in the hands and feet caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth during chemotherapy with cisplatin or oxaliplatin doesn't seem to reduce nerve damage in the arms and legs caused by the chemotherapy. On the other hand, some early research shows that taking a product containing alpha-lipoic acid and other ingredients reduces nerve damage caused by chemotherapy. The other ingredients in this product might be responsible for this benefit.
- Kidney damage caused by contrast dyes (contrast induced nephropathy). Adding alpha-lipoic acid to standard hydration therapy used before and after a coronary angiography doesn't seem to help prevent kidney damage caused by contrast agents.
- Diabetes. Most research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth or intravenously does not improve blood sugar levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. But not all research agrees. These differences could be at least partly due to people using antidiabetes drugs or the purity of the alpha-lipoic acid product used.
- Vision problems in people with diabetes (diabetic retinopathy). Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 24 months does not improve damage to the retina associated with diabetes.
- Dementia in people with advanced HIV/AIDS. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth has no effect on cognition problems in people with HIV.
- High levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Taking alpha-lipoic acid does not seem to reduce triglyceride levels in most people.
Insufficient Evidence for
- An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid does not slow down the loss of vision in people with advanced AMD.
- Aging skin. Early research shows that applying cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid might reduce fine lines and skin roughness caused by sun damage.
- Alzheimer disease. Some early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid in combination with a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors might slow mental decline in people with Alzheimer disease better than taking cholinesterase inhibitors alone. However, higher quality research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid with vitamin E and vitamin C doesn't improve mental function in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease.
- Mushroom poisoning. The use of alpha-lipoic acid in treating mushroom poisoning is controversial. Some reports suggest it might help, but these reports are unreliable. Some researchers recommend against using alpha-lipoic acid for this purpose.
- Irregular heartbeat (atrial fibrillation). Some people with a type of irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation get surgery. However, after surgery, the irregular heartbeat can start again. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid does not help to prevent this recurrence. But bigger studies are needed.
- Bipolar disorder. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with acetyl-L-carnitine doesn't seem to improve depression in people with bipolar disorder. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid when taken alone are unclear.
- Burning pain in the mouth. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid in people with burning mouth syndrome is unclear. Some early research suggests that taking 600 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day for 2 months improves pain in people with this condition. However, other research suggests that taking 800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid by mouth daily for 2 months doesn't help. Reason for the conflicting results is not entirely clear. However, the cause of burning mouth syndrome might influence whether alpha-lipoic acid is beneficial. There is some early evidence that alpha-lipoic acid might help reduce symptoms of burning mouth syndrome caused by stress but not depression or drug-induced dry mouth. Higher-quality research is needed to confirm these results.
- Carpal tunnel syndrome. Taking alpha-lipoic acid might reduce pain by a moderate amount in people with this condition. When taken after surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, taking alpha-lipoic acid doesn't seem to help the nerve recover. But it might prevent pain from developing on the sides of the incision.
- Long-term kidney disease (chronic kidney disease or CKD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid might help to control blood sugar in people with a disease called polycystic kidney disease. But it doesn't seem to help prevent plaque build up in blood vessels.
- Kidney damage in people with diabetes (diabetic nephropathy). Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid by IV, along with IV alprostadil or oral valsartan, improves markers of kidney damage in people with diabetes and early kidney damage.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea). Taking alpha-lipoic acid just before the start of menstruation might reduce period pain by a small amount. It might also help the medication mefenamic acid work better.
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid with alprostadil by IV increases erections in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).
- Fibromyalgia. Early research shows that giving alpha-lipoic acid with alprostadil by IV increases erections in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).
- A group of eye disorders that can lead to vision loss (glaucoma). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 1 month improves visual function in people with glaucoma.
- Hemorrhoids. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 12 weeks helps improve pain, itching, and bleeding caused by hemorrhoids.
- HIV/AIDS. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 6 months improves white blood cell counts in people with HIV who did not respond to antiretroviral therapy.
- High blood pressure. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily with the blood pressure-lowering medication quinapril does not decrease blood pressure compared to taking quinapril alone.
- Prediabetes. Early research suggests that giving alpha-lipoic acid by IV once daily for 2 weeks improves post-meal blood sugar and insulin in people with prediabetes. Taking alpha-lipoic acid by mouth also seems to improve blood sugar control.
- Migraine. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 3 months improves the severity and frequency of migraines. But it doesn't reduce the number of monthly migraines.
- Muscle strength. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid while undergoing heavy training might help to maintain muscle strength.
- Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid doesn't help break down liver fat in people with NAFLD.
- Low blood pressure that occurs upon standing (orthostatic hypotension). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid might help prevent blood pressure from dropping upon standing in some people.
- Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid twice daily might reduce pain associated with exercise in people with peripheral arterial disease.
- A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Taking alpha-lipoic acid might help with the control of blood sugar. But it doesn't seem to improve hormone levels, body weight, or excessive body hair.
- Preterm birth. During premature labor, the cervix can shorten. This can increase the risk of preterm birth. Early research shows that inserting alpha-lipoic acid into the vagina can prevent the cervix from shortening after premature labor without delivery. But it's not clear if alpha-lipoic acid helps prevent premature birth.
- Radiation exposure. Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid alone or together with vitamin E for 28 days might reduce symptoms of radiation exposure in children living near areas contaminated with radiation.
- Pain due to pressure on the sciatic nerve (sciatica). Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid daily for 60 days improves leg pain and weakness in people with sciatica due to a herniated disc. But it does not seem to improve sleep quality.
- A skin disorder that causes white patches to develop on the skin (vitiligo). Early research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid during phototherapy does not increase the effectiveness of phototherapy in people with skin discoloration characterized by white patches. However, other research suggests that taking alpha-lipoic acid with other ingredients starting 8 weeks before UV phototherapy and continuing during phototherapy treatment increases the effectiveness of phototherapy in these people.
- Wound healing. Early research shows that taking alpha-lipoic acid one hour before and one hour after hyperbaric oxygen therapy administered daily for 2 to 4 weeks reduces wound area compared to hyperbaric oxygen therapy alone.
- An inherited disorder that causes copper to build up in many organs (Wilson disease).
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility).
- Heart disease.
- Heart failure.
- Inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility).
- Lyme disease.
- Neck pain.
- Painful bladder syndrome (interstitial cystitis).
- Skin wrinkles from sun damage.
- Surgery to improve blood flow to the heart (CABG surgery).
- Other conditions.
When applied to the skin: Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used as a cream for up to 12 weeks.
When given by IV: Alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when used intravenously (by IV) for up to 3 weeks.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Breastfeeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if alpha-lipoic acid is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: When taken by mouth in appropriate amounts, alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE in children aged 10-17 years. When taken by mouth in large amounts, alpha-lipoic acid is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in children. Seizures, vomiting, and unconsciousness has been reported for children aged 14 months to 16 years who took up to 2400 mg of alpha-lipoic acid in a single dose.
Surgery: Alpha-lipoic acid can decrease blood sugar levels. In theory, alpha-lipoic acid might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking alpha-lipoic acid 2 weeks before elective surgical procedures.
Excessive use of alcohol/thiamine deficiency: Alcohol can lower the amount of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the body. Taking alpha-lipoic acid when there is a shortage of thiamine might cause serious health problems. If you drink a lot of alcohol and take alpha-lipoic acid, you should take a thiamine supplement.
Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy) interacts with ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID
Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID
Alpha-lipoic acid might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking alpha-lipoic acid along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. But more evidence is needed to know if this interaction is a big concern. Monitor your blood sugar closely.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Be watchful with this combination
- For nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy): 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day.
- For high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia): 300-1200 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day for up to 16 weeks.
- For obesity: 600-1800 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day has been taken for 12-24 weeks.
- For nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy): 600-1200 mg of alpha-lipoic acid per day administered by a health care provider.
- For obesity: 300 mg of alpha-lipoic acid has been taken twice daily in children aged 10-17 years.
Al'-Zamil', M. K. and Brezheva, E. V. [Implication of alpha-lipoic acid preparations in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 2008;108(2):27-30. View abstract.
Bailey, D. M. and Davies, B. Acute mountain sickness; prophylactic benefits of antioxidant vitamin supplementation at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 2001;2(1):21-29. View abstract.
Bangma, H. R., Smit, G. P., Kuks, J. B., Grevink, R. G., and Wolffenbuttel, B. H. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 10-18-2008;152(42):2298-2301. View abstract.
Bartlett, H. E. and Eperjesi, F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28(6):503-523. View abstract.
Becker, S., Schmidt, C., Berghaus, A., Tschiesner, U., Olzowy, B., and Reichel, O. Does laryngopharyngeal reflux cause intraoral burning sensations? A preliminary study. Eur Arch.Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268(9):1375-1381. View abstract.
Bergqvist-Karlsson, A., Thelin, I., and Bergendorff, O. Contact dermatitis to alpha-lipoic acid in an anti-wrinkle cream. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55(1):56-57. View abstract.
Berkson, B. M., Rubin, D. M., and Berkson, A. J. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases. Integr Cancer Ther 2009;8(4):416-422. View abstract.
Berkson, B. M., Rubin, D. M., and Berkson, A. J. The long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer with metastases to the liver after treatment with the intravenous alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone protocol. Integr.Cancer Ther 2006;5(1):83-89. View abstract.
Bierhaus, A., Chevion, S., Chevion, M., Hofmann, M., Quehenberger, P., Illmer, T., Luther, T., Berentshtein, E., Tritschler, H., Muller, M., Wahl, P., Ziegler, R., and Nawroth, P. P. Advanced glycation end product-induced activation of NF-kappaB is suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid in cultured endothelial cells. Diabetes 1997;46(9):1481-1490. View abstract.
Borcea, V., Nourooz-Zadeh, J., Wolff, S. P., Klevesath, M., Hofmann, M., Urich, H., Wahl, P., Ziegler, R., Tritschler, H., Halliwell, B., and Nawroth, P. P. alpha-Lipoic acid decreases oxidative stress even in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control and albuminuria. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 1999;22(11-12):1495-1500. View abstract.
Bregovskii, V. B., Posokhina, O. V., and Karpova, I. A. [Predictors of alpha-lipoic acid treatment efficacy in diabetic polyneuropathy of the lower limbs]. Ter.Arkh. 2005;77(10):15-19. View abstract.
Breithaupt-Grogler, K., Niebch, G., Schneider, E., Erb, K., Hermann, R., Blume, H. H., Schug, B. S., and Belz, G. G. Dose-proportionality of oral thioctic acid--coincidence of assessments via pooled plasma and individual data. Eur J Pharm Sci 1999;8(1):57-65. View abstract.
Bruckner, I., Bustan, C., Adamescu, E., and Dobjanschi, C. Diabetic neuropathy--choices of treatment. Rom.J Intern Med 2002;40(1-4):53-60. View abstract.
Byun, C. H., Koh, J. M., Kim, D. K., Park, S. I., Lee, K. U., and Kim, G. S. alpha-Lipoic Acid Inhibits TNF-alpha-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells. J Bone Miner.Res 2005;20(7):1125-1135. View abstract.
Cagini, C., Leontiadis, A., Ricci, M. A., Bartolini, A., Dragoni, A., and Pellegrino, R. M. Study of alpha-lipoic acid penetration in the human aqueous after topical administration. Clin Experiment.Ophthalmol. 2010;38(6):572-576. View abstract.
Cakatay, U. Pro-oxidant actions of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. Med Hypotheses 2006;66(1):110-117. View abstract.
Chaparro, L. E., Wiffen, P. J., Moore, R. A., and Gilron, I. Combination pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;7:CD008943. View abstract.
Chen LY, Zhang YD & Zhu FY. Effects of alpha lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Diabetology 2008;4:50-51.
Constantinescu, A., Pick, U., Handelman, G. J., Haramaki, N., Han, D., Podda, M., Tritschler, H. J., and Packer, L. Reduction and transport of lipoic acid by human erythrocytes. Biochem.Pharmacol. 7-17-1995;50(2):253-261. View abstract.
de, Moraes M., do Amaral Bezerra, B. A., da Rocha Neto, P. C., de Oliveira Soares, A. C., Pinto, L. P., and de Lisboa Lopes, Costa A. Randomized trials for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: an evidence-based review of the literature. J Oral Pathol.Med. 2012;41(4):281-287. View abstract.
Doggrell, S. A. Alpha-lipoic acid, an anti-obesity agent? Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2004;13(12):1641-1643. View abstract.
Donato, A. J., Uberoi, A., Bailey, D. M., Wray, D. W., and Richardson, R. S. Exercise-induced brachial artery vasodilation: effects of antioxidants and exercise training in elderly men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2010;298(2):H671-H678. View abstract.
Dunschede, F., Erbes, K., Kircher, A., Westermann, S., Seifert, J., Schad, A., Oliver, K., Kiemer, A. K., and Theodor, J. Reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury after liver resection and hepatic inflow occlusion by alpha-lipoic acid in humans. World J Gastroenterol 11-14-2006;12(42):6812-6817. View abstract.
Eremeeva, M. E. and Silverman, D. J. Effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on human umbilical vein endothelial cells infected with Rickettsia rickettsii. Infect.Immun. 1998;66(5):2290-2299. View abstract.
Estrada, D. E., Ewart, H. S., Tsakiridis, T., Volchuk, A., Ramlal, T., Tritschler, H., and Klip, A. Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thioctic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway. Diabetes 1996;45(12):1798-1804. View abstract.
Evans, J. L., Heymann, C. J., Goldfine, I. D., and Gavin, L. A. Pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and fructosamine-lowering effect of a novel, controlled-release formulation of alpha-lipoic acid. Endocr.Pract. 2002;8(1):29-35. View abstract.
Evans, JL and Goldfine, ID. Alpha-lipoic acid: a multifunctional antioxidant that improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2000;2(3):401-413.
Fedin, A. I., Kuznetsov, M. R., Beresten', N. F., Kuznetsova, V. F., Kholopova, E. A., Ibragimov, T. M., Tugdumov, B. V., and Dubrovin, E. E. [Correction of disordered cerebral blood flow autoregulation in atherosclerosis]. Angiol.Sosud.Khir. 2009;15(3):21-26. View abstract.
Femiano, F. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): an open trial of comparative efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) with other therapies. Minerva Stomatol. 2002;51(9):405-409. View abstract.
Fu Y. Effects of alpha lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Practical Internal Medicine. 2008;28:81-83.
Ghibu, S., Richard, C., Delemasure, S., Vergely, C., Mogosan, C., and Muresan, A. [An endogenous dithiol with antioxidant properties: alpha-lipoic acid, potential uses in cardiovascular diseases]. Ann Cardiol.Angeiol.(Paris) 2008;57(3):161-165. View abstract.
Gianturco, V., Bellomo, A., D'Ottavio, E., Formosa, V., Iori, A., Mancinella, M., Troisi, G., and Marigliano, V. Impact of therapy with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the oxidative stress in the controlled NIDDM: a possible preventive way against the organ dysfunction? Arch.Gerontol.Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:129-133. View abstract.
Gleiter, C. H., Schug, B. S., Hermann, R., Elze, M., Blume, H. H., and Gundert-Remy, U. Influence of food intake on the bioavailability of thioctic acid enantiomers. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;50(6):513-514. View abstract.
Gregus, Z., Stein, A. F., Varga, F., and Klaassen, C. D. Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of glutathione and metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1992;114(1):88-96. View abstract.
Guais, A., Baronzio, G., Sanders, E., Campion, F., Mainini, C., Fiorentini, G., Montagnani, F., Behzadi, M., Schwartz, L., and Abolhassani, M. Adding a combination of hydroxycitrate and lipoic acid (METABLOC) to chemotherapy improves effectiveness against tumor development: experimental results and case report. Invest New Drugs 2012;30(1):200-211. View abstract.
Haak, E. S., Usadel, K. H., Kohleisen, M., Yilmaz, A., Kusterer, K., and Haak, T. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the neurovascular reflex arc in patients with diabetic neuropathy assessed by capillary microscopy. Microvasc.Res. 1999;58(1):28-34. View abstract.
Hahm, J. R., Kim, B. J., and Kim, K. W. Clinical experience with thioctacid (thioctic acid) in the treatment of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in Korean diabetic patients. J Diabetes Complications 2004;18(2):79-85. View abstract.
Han, D., Sen, C. K., Roy, S., Kobayashi, M. S., Tritschler, H. J., and Packer, L. Protection against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in C6 glial cells by thiol antioxidants. Am J Physiol 1997;273(5 Pt 2):R1771-R1778. View abstract.
Handelman, G. J., Han, D., Tritschler, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid reduction by mammalian cells to the dithiol form, and release into the culture medium. Biochem Pharmacol 5-18-1994;47(10):1725-1730. View abstract.
Harris, R. A., Nishiyama, S. K., Wray, D. W., Tedjasaputra, V., Bailey, D. M., and Richardson, R. S. The effect of oral antioxidants on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation following 5 and 10 min of ischemia. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;107(4):445-453. View abstract.
Hatzitolios, A., Iliadis, F., Katsiki, N., and Baltatzi, M. Is the anti-hypertensive effect of dietary supplements via aldehydes reduction evidence based? A systematic review. Clin Exp.Hypertens. 2008;30(7):628-639. View abstract.
Heinisch, B. B., Francesconi, M., Mittermayer, F., Schaller, G., Gouya, G., Wolzt, M., and Pleiner, J. Alpha-lipoic acid improves vascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial. Eur J Clin Invest 2010;40(2):148-154. View abstract.
Heitzer, T., Finckh, B., Albers, S., Krohn, K., Kohlschutter, A., and Meinertz, T. Beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid and ascorbic acid on endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in diabetic patients: relation to parameters of oxidative stress. Free Radic.Biol Med 7-1-2001;31(1):53-61. View abstract.
Henriksen, E. J., Jacob, S., Streeper, R. S., Fogt, D. L., Hokama, J. Y., and Tritschler, H. J. Stimulation by alpha-lipoic acid of glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle of lean and obese Zucker rats. Life Sci 1997;61(8):805-812. View abstract.
Huang H, Zhu KS Wang P Qu JC Ji XF & Song M. The effects of lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Clinical Health 2008;11:29-30.
Huang, E. A. and Gitelman, S. E. The effect of oral alpha-lipoic acid on oxidative stress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr.Diabetes 2008;9(3 Pt 2):69-73. View abstract.
Jacob, S., Streeper, R. S., Fogt, D. L., Hokama, J. Y., Tritschler, H. J., Dietze, G. J., and Henriksen, E. J. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid enhances insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle. Diabetes 1996;45(8):1024-1029. View abstract.
Jain, S. K. and Lim, G. Lipoic acid decreases lipid peroxidation and protein glycosylation and increases (Na(+) + K(+))- and Ca(++)-ATPase activities in high glucose- treated human erythrocytes. Free Radic.Biol.Med 2000;29(11):1122-1128. View abstract.
Jameel, N. M., Shekhar, M. A., and Vishwanath, B. S. Alpha-lipoic acid: an inhibitor of secretory phospholipase A2 with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci 12-14-2006;80(2):146-153. View abstract.
Jang, W. G., Kim, H. S., Park, K. G., Park, Y. B., Yoon, K. H., Han, S. W., Hur, S. H., Park, K. S., and Lee, I. K. Analysis of proteome and transcriptome of tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells with or without alpha lipoic acid. Proteomics. 2004;4(11):3383-3393. View abstract.
Janson, M. Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging. Clin Interv.Aging 2006;1(3):261-265. View abstract.
Kahler, W., Kuklinski, B., Ruhlmann, C., and Plotz, C. [Diabetes mellitus--a free radical-associated disease. Results of adjuvant antioxidant supplementation]. Z Gesamte Inn.Med 1993;48(5):223-232. View abstract.
Kamenova, P. Improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid. Hormones.(Athens.) 2006;5(4):251-258. View abstract.
Kawabata, T. and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoate can protect against glycation of serum albumin, but not low density lipoprotein. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 8-30-1994;203(1):99-104. View abstract.
Khanna, S., Atalay, M., Lodge, J. K., Laaksonen, D. E., Roy, S., Hanninen, O., Packer, L., and Sen, C. K. Skeletal muscle and liver lipoyllysine content in response to exercise, training and dietary alpha-lipoic acid supplementation. Biochem.Mol.Biol.Int. 1998;46(2):297-306. View abstract.
Kieburtz K, Schifitto G, McDermott M, and et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 1998;50(3):645-651.
Kim, E., Park, D. W., Choi, S. H., Kim, J. J., and Cho, H. S. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28(2):138-146. View abstract.
Koh, J. M., Lee, Y. S., Byun, C. H., Chang, E. J., Kim, H., Kim, Y. H., Kim, H. H., and Kim, G. S. Alpha-lipoic acid suppresses osteoclastogenesis despite increasing the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in human bone marrow stromal cells. J Endocrinol. 2005;185(3):401-413. View abstract.
Konrad, D., Somwar, R., Sweeney, G., Yaworsky, K., Hayashi, M., Ramlal, T., and Klip, A. The antihyperglycemic drug alpha-lipoic acid stimulates glucose uptake via both GLUT4 translocation and GLUT4 activation: potential role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in GLUT4 activation. Diabetes 2001;50(6):1464-1471. View abstract.
Kravchuk, IuA, Mekhtiev, S. N., Uspenskii, IuP, Grinevich, V. B., and Koblov, S. V. [Device laboratory and postmortem parallels in alcoholic hepatitis during combined therapy using thioctic (alpha-lipoic) acid]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2004;82(6):55-57. View abstract.
Larkin, J., Bea, L., and Sharma, A. A cost effective complement to managing the vitamin D deficient and anemic dialysis patient in the bundled world. Nephrol.News Issues 2012;26(8):22-4, 26. View abstract.
Lee, S. H., Kim, M. J., Kim, B. J., Kim, S. R., Chun, S., Ryu, J. S., Kim, G. S., Lee, M. C., Koh, J. M., and Chung, S. J. Homocysteine-lowering therapy or antioxidant therapy for bone loss in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2-15-2010;25(3):332-340. View abstract.
Lee, T. and Dugoua, J. J. Nutritional supplements and their effect on glucose control. Curr.Diab.Rep. 2011;11(2):142-148. View abstract.
Lee, W. J., Lee, I. K., Kim, H. S., Kim, Y. M., Koh, E. H., Won, J. C., Han, S. M., Kim, M. S., Jo, I., Oh, G. T., Park, I. S., Youn, J. H., Park, S. W., Lee, K. U., and Park, J. Y. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents endothelial dysfunction in obese rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 2005;25(12):2488-2494. View abstract.
Lee, W. J., Song, K. H., Koh, E. H., Won, J. C., Kim, H. S., Park, H. S., Kim, M. S., Kim, S. W., Lee, K. U., and Park, J. Y. Alpha-lipoic acid increases insulin sensitivity by activating AMPK in skeletal muscle. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 7-8-2005;332(3):885-891. View abstract.
Li J, Xu QL. Effects of shuxuening and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Modern Drug Application. 2008;2:49-50.
Lopez-Erauskin, J., Fourcade, S., Galino, J., Ruiz, M., Schluter, A., Naudi, A., Jove, M., Portero-Otin, M., Pamplona, R., Ferrer, I., and Pujol, A. Antioxidants halt axonal degeneration in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(1):84-92. View abstract.
Lu YH. Observation of -lipoic acid and ligutrazine curing diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Medical Recapitulate 2009;2:62.
Lukaszuk, J. Schultz T. Prawitz A. and Hofmann E. R-Alpha Lipoic Acid Effect on HbA1c in Type-2 Diabetics. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 2009;6(1):1-14.
Madeddu, C., Dessi, M., Panzone, F., Serpe, R., Antoni, G., Cau, M. C., Montaldo, L., Mela, Q., Mura, M., Astara, G., Tanca, F. M., Maccio, A., and Mantovani, G. Randomized phase III clinical trial of a combined treatment with carnitine + celecoxib +/- megestrol acetate for patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome. Clin Nutr 2012;31(2):176-182. View abstract.
Maitra, I., Serbinova, E., Trischler, H., and Packer, L. Alpha-lipoic acid prevents buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Free Radic.Biol.Med 1995;18(4):823-829. View abstract.
Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Gramignano, G., Lusso, M. R., Serpe, R., Massa, E., Astara, G., and Deiana, L. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(5):1030-1034. View abstract.
Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Gramignano, G., Serpe, R., Massa, E., Dessi, M., Tanca, F. M., Sanna, E., Deiana, L., Panzone, F., Contu, P., and Floris, C. Randomized phase III clinical trial of five different arms of treatment for patients with cancer cachexia: interim results. Nutrition 2008;24(4):305-313. View abstract.
Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Mura, L., Gramignano, G., Lusso, M. R., Massa, E., Mocci, M., and Serpe, R. Antioxidant agents are effective in inducing lymphocyte progression through cell cycle in advanced cancer patients: assessment of the most important laboratory indexes of cachexia and oxidative stress. J Mol Med 2003;81(10):664-673. View abstract.
Martins, V. D., Manfredini, V., Peralba, M. C., and Benfato, M. S. Alpha-lipoic acid modifies oxidative stress parameters in sickle cell trait subjects and sickle cell patients. Clin Nutr 2009;28(2):192-197. View abstract.
Mazloom, Z. and Ansar H. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetics. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;11(3):245-250.
McCormick, R. K. Osteoporosis: integrating biomarkers and other diagnostic correlates into the management of bone fragility. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(2):113-145. View abstract.
McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., Novials, A., and McEneny, J. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:217. View abstract.
Mignini, F., Streccioni, V., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., and Amenta, F. Comparative crossover, randomized, open-label bioequivalence study on the bioequivalence of two formulations of thioctic acid in healthy volunteers. Clin Exp.Hypertens. 2007;29(8):575-586. View abstract.
Mijnhout, G. S., Alkhalaf, A., Kleefstra, N., and Bilo, H. J. Alpha lipoic acid: a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes? Neth.J Med 2010;68(4):158-162. View abstract.
Milazzo, L., Menzaghi, B., Caramma, I., Nasi, M., Sangaletti, O., Cesari, M., Zanone, Poma B., Cossarizza, A., Antinori, S., and Galli, M. Effect of antioxidants on mitochondrial function in HIV-1-related lipoatrophy: a pilot study. AIDS Res.Hum.Retroviruses 2010;26(11):1207-1214. View abstract.
Mitsui, Y., Schmelzer, J. D., Zollman, P. J., Mitsui, M., Tritschler, H. J., and Low, P. A. Alpha-lipoic acid provides neuroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury of peripheral nerve. J Neurol.Sci. 2-1-1999;163(1):11-16. View abstract.
Mittermayer, F., Pleiner, J., Francesconi, M., and Wolzt, M. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid reduces asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Transl.Res 2010;155(1):6-9. View abstract.
Mollo, R., Zaccardi, F., Scalone, G., Scavone, G., Rizzo, P., Navarese, E. P., Manto, A., Pitocco, D., Lanza, G. A., Ghirlanda, G., and Crea, F. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on platelet reactivity in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2012;35(2):196-197. View abstract.
Morcos, M., Borcea, V., Isermann, B., Gehrke, S., Ehret, T., Henkels, M., Schiekofer, S., Hofmann, M., Amiral, J., Tritschler, H., Ziegler, R., Wahl, P., and Nawroth, P. P. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the progression of endothelial cell damage and albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: an exploratory study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2001;52(3):175-183. View abstract.
Moreira, P. I., Harris, P. L., Zhu, X., Santos, M. S., Oliveira, C. R., Smith, M. A., and Perry, G. Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine decrease mitochondrial-related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease patient fibroblasts. J Alzheimers.Dis 2007;12(2):195-206. View abstract.
Muller, U. and Krieglstein, J. Prolonged pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid protects cultured neurons against hypoxic, glutamate-, or iron-induced injury. J Cereb.Blood Flow Metab 1995;15(4):624-630. View abstract.
Najm, W. and Lie, D. Herbals used for diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Prim.Care 2010;37(2):237-254. View abstract.
Nebbioso, M., Federici, M., Rusciano, D., Evangelista, M., and Pescosolido, N. Oxidative stress in preretinopathic diabetes subjects and antioxidants. Diabetes Technol.Ther 2012;14(3):257-263. View abstract.
Negrisanu, G., Rosu, M., Bolte, B., Lefter, D., and Dabelea, D. Effects of 3-month treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Rom.J Intern Med 1999;37(3):297-306. View abstract.
Ou, P., Tritschler, H. J., and Wolff, S. P. Thioctic (lipoic) acid: a therapeutic metal-chelating antioxidant? Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-29-1995;50(1):123-126. View abstract.
Palacka, P., Kucharska, J., Murin, J., Dostalova, K., Okkelova, A., Cizova, M., Waczulikova, I., Moricova, S., and Gvozdjakova, A. Complementary therapy in diabetic patients with chronic complications: a pilot study. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2010;111(4):205-211. View abstract.
Pfeffer, G., Majamaa, K., Turnbull, D. M., Thorburn, D., and Chinnery, P. F. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004426. View abstract.
Qiao YC. Effects of lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rational Drug Use. 2009;2:62.
Ramos, L. F., Kane, J., McMonagle, E., Le, P., Wu, P., Shintani, A., Ikizler, T. A., and Himmelfarb, J. Effects of combination tocopherols and alpha lipoic acid therapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr 2011;21(3):211-218. View abstract.
Reichel G, Doberenz M, Both R, and et al. Function of cardiac nerves in diabetics during alpha-lipoic-acid-therapy. J Neurol Sci 1997;150(5):S209.
Rett K, Wicklmayr M, Ruus P, and et al. Lipoic acid acutely ameliorates insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Und Stoffwechsel 1996;5(3 suppl):59-63.
Rivinius, C. Burning mouth syndrome: Identification, diagnosis, and treatment. J Am Acad.Nurse Pract. 2009;21(8):423-429. View abstract.
Rooney, J. P. The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury. Toxicology 5-20-2007;234(3):145-156. View abstract.
Rosa, F. T., Zulet, M. A., Marchini, J. S., and Martinez, J. A. Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012;63(6):749-765. View abstract.
Rutkove, S. B. A 52-year-old woman with disabling peripheral neuropathy: review of diabetic polyneuropathy. JAMA 10-7-2009;302(13):1451-1458. View abstract.
Salinthone, S., Yadav, V., Schillace, R. V., Bourdette, D. N., and Carr, D. W. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling. PLoS.One. 2010;5(9) View abstract.
Schimmelpfennig W, Renger F, Wack R, and et al. [Results of a prospective double-blind study with alpha-lipoic acid against placebo in alcoholic liver damage] (Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Doppelblindstudie mit Alpha-Liponsäure gegen Plazebo bei alkoholischen Leberschäden). Dtsch Gesundheitswes 1983;38(18):690-693.
Singh, U. and Jialal, I. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation and diabetes. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(11):646-657. View abstract.
Skalska, S., Kucera, P., Goldenberg, Z., Stefek, M., Kyselova, Z., Jariabka, P., Gajdosikova, A., Klobucnikova, K., Traubner, P., and Stolc, S. Neuropathy in a rat model of mild diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin: effects of the antioxidant stobadine in comparison with a high-dose alpha-lipoic acid treatment. Gen.Physiol Biophys 2010;29(1):50-58. View abstract.
Smith, A. R. and Hagen, T. M. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in aging: loss of Akt-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and partial restoration by (R)-alpha-lipoic acid. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003;31(Pt 6):1447-1449. View abstract.
Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., and Khan, B. V. Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: results of the Irbesartan and Lipoic Acid in Endothelial Dysfunction (ISLAND) study. Circulation 1-25-2005;111(3):343-348. View abstract.
Spisakova, M., Cizek, Z., and Melkova, Z. Ethacrynic and alpha-lipoic acids inhibit vaccinia virus late gene expression. Antiviral Res 2009;81(2):156-165. View abstract.
Statsenko, M. E., Poletaeva, L. V., Turkina, S. V., Apukhtin, A. F., and Dudchenko, G. P. [Mildronate effects on oxidant stress in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral (sensomotor) neuropathy]. Ter.Arkh. 2008;80(10):27-30. View abstract.
Suarez, P. and Clark, G. T. Burning mouth syndrome: an update on diagnosis and treatment methods. J Calif.Dent.Assoc. 2006;34(8):611-622. View abstract.
Sun-Edelstein, C. and Mauskop, A. Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches. Clin J Pain 2009;25(5):446-452. View abstract.
Sung, M. J., Kim, W., Ahn, S. Y., Cho, C. H., Koh, G. Y., Moon, S. O., Kim, D. H., Lee, S., Kang, K. P., Jang, K. Y., and Park, S. K. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial fractalkine expression. Circ.Res 10-28-2005;97(9):880-890. View abstract.
Suo LN & Zhang D. Effects of lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2009;24:1104-1105.
Tang, J., Wingerchuk, D. M., Crum, B. A., Rubin, D. I., and Demaerschalk, B. M. Alpha-lipoic acid may improve symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Neurologist. 2007;13(3):164-167. View abstract.
Tankova, T., Cherninkova, S., and Koev, D. Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid. Int J Clin.Pract. 2005;59(6):645-650. View abstract.
Tarnopolsky, M. A. and Raha, S. Mitochondrial myopathies: diagnosis, exercise intolerance, and treatment options. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(12):2086-2093. View abstract.
Teichert, J., Hermann, R., Ruus, P., and Preiss, R. Plasma kinetics, metabolism, and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid following oral administration in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43(11):1257-1267. View abstract.
VIATRIS GmbH. NATHAN II Study, data on file.
Wang J, Song W Huang J & Qu YC. Effects of prostaglandin E1 and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Training of Medicine 2007;23:1325-1326.
Wenzel, U., Nickel, A., and Daniel, H. alpha-Lipoic acid induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells by increasing mitochondrial respiration with a concomitant O2-*-generation. Apoptosis. 2005;10(2):359-368. View abstract.
Wray, D. W., Nishiyama, S. K., Harris, R. A., Zhao, J., McDaniel, J., Fjeldstad, A. S., Witman, M. A., Ives, S. J., Barrett-O'Keefe, Z., and Richardson, R. S. Acute reversal of endothelial dysfunction in the elderly after antioxidant consumption. Hypertension 2012;59(4):818-824. View abstract.
Wray, D. W., Nishiyama, S. K., Monnet, A., Wary, C., Duteil, S. S., Carlier, P. G., and Richardson, R. S. Antioxidants and aging: NMR-based evidence of improved skeletal muscle perfusion and energetics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2009;297(5):H1870-H1875. View abstract.
Wray, D. W., Uberoi, A., Lawrenson, L., Bailey, D. M., and Richardson, R. S. Oral antioxidants and cardiovascular health in the exercise-trained and untrained elderly: a radically different outcome. Clin Sci (Lond) 2009;116(5):433-441. View abstract.
Wu YX, Shi F & Ling L. Effects of lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Sun Yat-sen University. 2008;29(S3):124-126.
Xia W, Zhang L & Wen SL. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on painful neuropathy of type 2 diabetes. Journal of Henan University. 2008;27:53-54.
Xiang GD, Pu JH, Snu HL, and Zhao LS. Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Exp.Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 2010;118(9):625-629. View abstract.
Xiang, G. D., Sun, H. L., Zhao, L. S., Hou, J., Yue, L., and Xu, L. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf) 2008;68(5):716-723. View abstract.
Xiang, G., Pu, J., Yue, L., Hou, J., and Sun, H. alpha-lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Metabolism 2011;60(4):480-485. View abstract.
Yaworsky, K., Somwar, R., Ramlal, T., Tritschler, H. J., and Klip, A. Engagement of the insulin-sensitive pathway in the stimulation of glucose transport by alpha-lipoic acid in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Diabetologia 2000;43(3):294-303. View abstract.
Zakrzewska, J. M., Forssell, H., and Glenny, A. M. Interventions for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Cochrane.Database.Syst Rev 2005;(1):CD002779. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Ostapiuk, J., and Szyszka, K. Effects of sulphur-containing compounds on plasma redox status in muscle-damaging exercise. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):289-294. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., and Szyszka, K. The comparison of antioxidant and hematological properties of N-acetylcysteine and alpha-lipoic acid in physically active males. Physiol Res 2009;58(6):855-861. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., and Dziubek, W. Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(2):139-143. View abstract.
Zembron-Lacny, A., Szyszka, K., and Szygula, Z. Effect of cysteine derivatives administration in healthy men exposed to intense resistance exercise by evaluation of pro-antioxidant ratio. J Physiol Sci 2007;57(6):343-348. View abstract.
Zhang XL, Feng YL Zhou BA & Wei GY. Effects of mecobalamin and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 2009;24:1104-1105.
Zhang, W. J., Wei, H., Hagen, T., and Frei, B. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses by activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A 3-6-2007;104(10):4077-4082. View abstract.
Zhao YY. Combined therapeutic effects of -lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Practical Training of Medicine 2008;24:4289-4290.
Zhou L. Effects of cilostazol and -lipoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Medicine and Health Care. 2009;17:10-11.
Ziegler, D., Reljanovic, M., Mehnert, H., and Gries, F. A. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Exp Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 1999;107(7):421-430. View abstract.
Zou JJ, Zheng JY Zhao Y Tang W Shi YQ & Liu ZM. Effects and safety of combined therapy of -lipoic acid, mecobalamin and prostaglandin E1 for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Shanghai Medical Journal 2008;31:364-365.
Sanders LLO, de Souza Menezes CE, Chaves Filho AJM, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid as adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia: an open-label trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Dec;37(6):697-701. View abstract.
). Ziegler D., Low P. A., Litchy W. J., Boulton A. J., Vinik A. I., Freeman R., Samigullin R., Tritschler H., Munzel U., Maus J., Schütte K., Dyck P. J. Efficacy and safety of antioxidant treatment with a-lipoic acid over 4 years in diabetic polyneuropathy: the NATHAN 1 trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34(9):2054-2060. View abstract.
Alleva R., Nasole E., Di Donato F., Borghi B., Neuzil J., Tomasetti M. alpha-Lipoic acid supplementation inhibits oxidative damage, accelerating chronic wound healing in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;333(2):404-410. View abstract.
Alleva R., Tomasetti M., Sartini D., Emanuelli M., Nasole E., Di Donato F., Borghi B., Santarelli L., Neuzil J. alpha-Lipoic acid modulates extracellular matrix and angiogenesis gene expression in non-healing wounds treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Mol Med 2008;14(3-4):175-183. View abstract.
Altenkirch H, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Wagner HM, et al. Effects of lipoic acid in hexacarbon-induced neuropathy. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1990;12:619-22. View abstract.
Ametov A. S., Novosadova M. V., Barinov A. N., Samigullin R., Trischler H. J. [Long-term effect of 3-week intravenous alpha-lipoic acid administration in symptomatic diabetic polyneutropathy with clinical manifestations]. Ter Arkh 2010;82(12):61-64. View abstract.
Ametov AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, et al. The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid. Diabetes Care 2003;26:770-6. View abstract.
Anon. Alpha-lipoic acid. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:308-10. View abstract.
Ansar H., Mazloom Z., Kazemi F., Hejazi N. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on blood glucose, insulin resistance and glutathione peroxidase of type 2 diabetic patients. Saudi Med J 2011;32(6):584-588. View abstract.
Bae S. C., Jung W. J., Lee E. J., Yu R., Sung M. K. Effects of antioxidant supplements intervention on the level of plasma inflammatory molecules and disease severity of rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Coll Nutr 2009;28(1):56-62. View abstract.
Baillie J. K., Thompson A. A., Irving J. B., Bates M. G., Sutherland A. I., Macnee W., Maxwell S. R., Webb D. J. Oral antioxidant supplementation does not prevent acute mountain sickness: double blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. QJM 2009;102(5):341-348. View abstract.
Baur A, Harrer T, Peukert M, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69:722-4. View abstract.
Beitner H. Randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoaging of facial skin. Br J Dermatol 2003;149:841-9. View abstract.
Berkson BM. Thioctic acid in treatment of hepatotoxic mushroom (Phalloides) poisoning (letter). N Engl J Med 1979;300:371.
Bertolotto F., Massone A. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and superoxide dismutase leads to physiological and symptomatic improvements in diabetic neuropathy. Drugs R D 2012;12(1):29-34. View abstract.
Biewenga GP, Haenen GR, Bast A. The pharmacology of the antioxidant lipoic acid. Gen Pharmacol 1997;29:315-31. View abstract.
Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, et al. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:141-7. View abstract.
Bobe G, Michels AJ, Zhang WJ, et al. A randomized controlled trial of long-term (R)-α-lipoic acid supplementation promotes weight loss in overweight or obese adults without altering baseline elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations. J Nutr. 2020: 150(9):2336-2345. View abstract.
Boriani F, Granchi D, Roatti G, Merlini L, Sabattini T, Baldini N. Alpha-lipoic acid after median nerve decompression at the carpal tunnel: a randomized controlled trial. J Hand Surg Am. 2017 Apr;42(4):236-42.View abstract.
Brennan BP, Jensen JE, Hudson JI, Coit CE, Beaulieu A, Pope HG Jr, Renshaw PF, Cohen BM. A placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine and a-lipoic acid in the treatment of bipolar depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Oct;33(5):627-35. View abstract.
Burekovic A., Terzic M., Alajbegovic S., Vukojevic Z., Hadzic N. The role of alpha-lipoic acid in diabetic polyneuropathy treatment. Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2008;8(4):341-345. View abstract.
Bustamante J, Lodge JK, Marcocci L, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease. Free Rad Biol Med 1998;24:1023-39. View abstract.
Carbone M., Pentenero M., Carrozzo M., Ippolito A., Gandolfo S. Lack of efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain 2009;13(5):492-496. View abstract.
Cavalcanti D. R., da Silveira F. R. Alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Oral Pathol Med 2009;38(3):254-261. View abstract.
Cavestro C, Bedogni G, Molinari F, Mandrino S, Rota E, Frigeri MC. Alpha-lipoic acid shows promise to improve migraine in patients with insulin resistance: a 6-month exploratory study. J Med Food. 2017 Oct 4. View abstract.
Chang J. W., Lee E. K., Kim T. H., Min W. K., Chun S., Lee K. U., Kim S. B., Park J. S. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on the plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis: a pilot study. Am J Nephrol 2007;27(1):70-74. View abstract.
Cicek M, Yildirir A, Okyay K, et al. Use of alpha-lipoic acid in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients. Ren Fail 2013;35(5):748-53. View abstract.
Conklin KA. Cancer chemotherapy and antioxidants. J Nutr 2004;134:3201S-3204S. View abstract.
Conlon BJ, Aran JM, Erre JP, Smith DW. Attenuation of aminoglycoside-induced cochlear damage with the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Hear Res 1999;128:40-4. View abstract.
Dana Consortium on the therapy of HIV dementia and related cognitive disorders. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 1998;50:645-51. View abstract.
de Oliveira A. M., Rondó P. H., Luzia L. A., D'Abronzo F. H., Illison V. K. The effects of lipoic acid and a-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;92(2):253-260. View abstract.
Dell'Anna M. L., Mastrofrancesco A., Sala R., Venturini M., Ottaviani M., Vidolin A. P., Leone G., Calzavara P. G., Westerhof W., Picardo, M. Antioxidants and narrow band-UVB in the treatment of vitiligo: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007;32(6):631-636. View abstract.
Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Preti P, Maffioli P. Safety and efficacy of alpha lipoic acid during 4 years of observation: A retrospective, clinical trial in healthy subjects in primary prevention. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2020;14:5367-5374. View abstract.
Desideri I, Francolini G, Becherini C, et al. Use of an alpha lipoic, methylsulfonylmethane and bromelain dietary supplement (Opera) for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy management, a prospective study. Med Oncol. 2017 Mar;34(3):46.View abstract.
Di Geronimo G., Caccese A. F., Caruso L., Soldati A., Passaretti U. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2009;13(2):133-139. View abstract.
Du X., Edelstein D., Brownlee M. Oral benfotiamine plus alpha-lipoic acid normalises complication-causing pathways in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2008;51(10):1930-1932. View abstract.
Ebada MA, Fayed N, Fayed L, et al. Efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid in the management of diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Pharm Res. 2019;18(4):2144-2156. View abstract.
El Amrousy D, El-Afify D. Effects of alpha lipoic acid as a supplement in obese children and adolescents. Cytokine. 2020;130:155084. View abstract.
El-Nahas MR, Elkannishy G, Abdelhafez H, Elkhamisy ET, El-Sehrawy AA. Oral alpha lipoic acid treatment for symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020. View abstract.
Emsley R, Chiliza B, Asmal L, du Plessis S, Phahladira L, van Niekerk E, van Rensburg SJ, Harvey BH. A randomized, controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids plus an antioxidant for relapse prevention after antipsychotic discontinuation in first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2014 Sep;158(1-3):230-5. View abstract.
Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C. Burning Mouth Syndrome: open trial of psychotherapy alone, medication with alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid), and combination therapy. Med Oral 2004;9(1):8-13. View abstract.
Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome: the efficacy of lipoic acid on subgroups. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2004;18(6):676-678. View abstract.
Femiano F., Gombos F., Scully C., Busciolano M., Luca P. D. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): controlled open trial of the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) on symptomatology. Oral Dis 2000;6(5):274-277. View abstract.
Femiano F., Scully C. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): double blind controlled study of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) therapy. J Oral Pathol Med 2002;31(5):267-269. View abstract.
Filina A. A., Davydova N. G., Endrikhovskii S. N., Shamshinova A. M. [Lipoic acid as a means of metabolic therapy of open-angle glaucoma]. Vestn Oftalmol 1995;111(4):6-8. View abstract.
Fogacci F, Rizzo M, Krogager C, et al. Safety evaluation of a-lipoic acid supplementation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020;9(10):1011. View abstract.
Fruzzetti F, Benelli E, Fidecicchi T, et al. Clinical and Metabolic Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Associated with Two Different Doses of Myo-Inositol in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Int J Endocrinol. 2020;2020:2901393. View abstract.
Fruzzetti F, Fidecicchi T, Palla G, Gambacciani M. Long-term treatment with a-lipoic acid and myo-inositol positively affects clinical and metabolic features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2020;36(2):152-155. View abstract.
Fuchs J, Schofer H, Milbradt R, et al. Studies on lipoate effects on blood redox state in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:1359-62. View abstract.
Furukawa N, Miyamura N, Nishida K, et al. Possible relevance of alpha lipoic acid contained in a health supplement in a case of insulin autoimmune syndrome. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;75:366-7. View abstract.
Galasko D. R., Peskind E., Clark C. M., Quinn J. F., Ringman J. M., Jicha G. A., Cotman C., Cottrell B., Montine T. J., Thomas R. G., Aisen P. Antioxidants for Alzheimer disease: a randomized clinical trial with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measures. Arch Neurol 2012;69(7):836-841. View abstract.
Genazzani AD, Prati A, Marchini F, Petrillo T, Napolitano A, Simoncini T. Differential insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in overweight/obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing to myo-inositol (MYO), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), or combination of both. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2019;35(12):1088-1093. View abstract.
Gilron I, Robb S, Tu D, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of alpha-lipoic acid for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain: the IMPALA trial. Pain. 2021;162(2):561-568. View abstract.
Gleiter CH, Schreeb KH, Freudenthaler S, et al. Lack of interaction between thioctic acid, glibenclamide and acarbose. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999;48:819-25. View abstract.
Grandi G, Pignatti L, Ferrari F, Dante G, Neri I, Facchinetti F. Vaginal alpha-lipoic acid shows an anti-inflammatory effect on the cervix, preventing its shortening after primary tocolysis. A pilot, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Sep;30(18):2243-49.View abstract.
Gu X. M., Zhang S. S., Wu J. C., Tang Z. Y., Lu Z. Q., Li H., Liu C., Chen L., Ning, G. [Efficacy and safety of high-dose a-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2010;90(35):2473-2476. View abstract.
Gullo D, Evans JL, Sortino G, Goldfine ID, Vigneri R. Insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata Disease) in European Caucasians taking a-lipoic acid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014;81(2):204-9. View abstract.
Guo Y, Jones D, Palmer JL, et al. Oral alpha-lipoic acid to prevent chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Support Care Cancer 2014;22(5):1223-31. View abstract.
Gurer H, Ozgunes H, Oztezcan S, Ercal N. Antioxidant role of alpha-lipoic acid in lead toxicity. Free Rad Biol Med 1999;27:75-81. View abstract.
Haak E., Usadel K. H., Kusterer K., Amini P., Frommeyer R., Tritschler H. J., Haak T. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on microcirculation in patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000;108(3):168-174. View abstract.
Hadzik B, Grass H, Mayatepek E, Daldrup T, Hoehn T. Fata non-accidental alpha-lipoic acid intoxication in an adolescent girl. Klin Padiatr. 2014 Sep;226(5):292-4. View abstract.
Hager K, Marahrens A, Kenklies M, Riederer P, Munch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Azheimer type dementia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2001;32(3);275-282.
Hager K., Kenklies M., McAfoose J., Engel J., Münch G. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis. J Neural Transm Suppl 2007;(72):189-193. View abstract.
Haghighatdoost F, Gholami A, Hariri M. Alpha-lipoic acid effect on leptin and adiponectin concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2020;76(5):649-657. View abstract.
Haghighatdoost F, Hariri M. Does alpha-lipoic acid affect lipid profile? A meta-analysis and systematic review on randomized controlled trials. Eur J Pharmacol 2019;847:1-10. View abstract.
Han T., Bai J., Liu W., Hu Y. A systematic review and meta-analysis of a-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Endocrinol 2012;167(4):465-471. View abstract.
Haramaki N, Assadnazari H, Zimmer G, et al. The influence of vitamin E and dihydrolipoic acid on cardiac energy and glutathione status under hypoxia-reoxygenation. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995;37:591-7. View abstract.
Haritoglou C., Gerss J., Hammes H. P., Kampik A., Ulbig M. W. Alpha-lipoic acid for the prevention of diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmologica 2011;226(3):127-137. View abstract.
Hegazy SK, Tolba OA, Mostafa TM, Eid MA, El-Afify DR. Alpha-lipoic acid improves subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud 2013;10(1):58-67. View abstract.
Hong Y, Peng J, Cai X, Zhang X, Liao Y, Lan L. Clinical efficacy of alprostadil combined with alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of elderly patients with diabetic nephropathy. Open Med (Wars). 2017 Oct 5;12:323-27.View abstract.
Hosseinpour-Arjmand S, Amirkhizi F, Ebrahimi-Mameghani M. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on inflammatory markers and body composition in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2019;44(2):258-67. View abstract.
Huang Z, Wan X, Liu J, et al. Short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion combined with insulin sensitizers rosiglitazone, metformin, or antioxidant a-lipoic acid in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther 2013;15(10):859-69. View abstract.
Isenmann E, Trittel L, Diel P. The effects of alpha lipoic acid on muscle strength recovery after a single and a short-term chronic supplementation - a study in healthy well-trained individuals after intensive resistance and endurance training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):61. View abstract.
Izzo V, Greco C, Corradini D, et al. Insulin autoimmune syndrome in an Argentine woman taking a-lipoic acid: A case report and review of the literature. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2018;6:2050313X18819601. View abstract.
Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Schiemann AL, et al. Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45:872-4. View abstract.
Jacob S, Henriksen EJ, Tritschler HJ, et al. Improvement of insulin-stimulated glucose-disposal in type 2 diabetes after repeated parenteral administration of thioctic acid. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabet 1996;104:284-8. View abstract.
Jacob S, Ruus P, Hermann R, et al. Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, pilot trial. Free Rad Biol Med 1999;27:309-14. View abstract.
Jamshidi K, Abdollahzad H, Nachvak M, Rezaei M, Golpayegani MR, Sharifi Zahabi E. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors in ß-thalassemia major patients: A clinical trial crossover study. J Blood Med. 2020;11:131-139. View abstract.
Janssen K, Mensink RP, Cox FJ, et al. Effects of the flavonoids quercetin and apigenin on hemostasis in healthy volunteers: results from an in vitro and a dietary supplement study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:255-62. View abstract.
Jariwalla R. J., Lalezari J., Cenko D., Mansour S. E., Kumar A., Gangapurkar B., Nakamura D. Restoration of blood total glutathione status and lymphocyte function following alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in patients with HIV infection. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14(2):139-146. View abstract.
Jiang Z, Tan Z, Meng F, Li X. Curative effects of valsartan alone or combined with alpha-lipoic acid on inflammatory cytokines and renal function in early-stage diabetic kidney disease. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2019;29(10):1009-1011. View abstract.
Jo SH, Kim SA, Kim HS, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography: the ALIVE study - a prospective randomized trial. Cardiology 2013;126(3):159-66. View abstract.
Jörg J., Metz F., Scharafinski, H. [Drug treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid or vitamin B preparations. A clinical and neurophysiologic study]. Nervenarzt 1988;59(1):36-44. View abstract.
Jurisic-Erzen D, Starcevic-Klasan G, Ivanac D, Peharec S, Girotto D, Jerkovic R. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid on diabetic myopathy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2017 Jun 28.View abstract.
Karaarslan U, Isgüder R, Bag Ö, et al. Alpha lipoic acid intoxication, treatment and outcome. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2013;51(6):522. View abstract.
Karkabounas S, Papadopoulos N, Anastasiadou C, et al. Effects of a-lipoic Acid, carnosine, and thiamine supplementation in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind study. J Med Food. 2018;21(12):1197-1203. View abstract.
Khabbazi T., Mahdavi R., Safa J., Pour-Abdollahi P. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, and serum lipid profile levels in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. J Ren Nutr 2012;22(2):244-250. View abstract.
Kim BJ, Hunter A, Brucker AJ, et al. Orally administered alpha lipoic acid as a treatment for geographic atrophy: A randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmol Retina. 2020;4(9):889-898. View abstract.
Kishi Y, Schmelzer JD, Yao JK, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid: effect on glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, and energy metabolism in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 1999;48:2045-51. View abstract.
Koh E. H., Lee W. J., Lee S. A., Kim E. H., Cho E. H., Jeong E., Kim D. W., Kim M. S., Park J. Y., Park K. G., Lee H. J., Lee I. K., Lim S., Jang H. C., Lee K. H., Lee K. U. Effects of alpha-lipoic Acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med 2011;124(1):85-88. View abstract.
Konrad T, Vicini P, Kusterer K, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate concentrations and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:280-7. View abstract.
Korkina L. G., Afanas'ef I. B., Diplock A. T. Antioxidant therapy in children affected by irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Biochem Soc Trans 1993;21 ( Pt 3)(3):314S. View abstract.
Kucukgoncu S, Zhou E, Lucas KB, Tek C. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2017 May;18(4):594-601. View abstract.
Labriola D, Livingston R. Possible interactions between dietary antioxidants and chemotherapy. Oncology 1999;13:1003-8. View abstract.
Lai S, Petramala L, Muscaritoli M, et al. a-lipoic acid in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nutrition. 2020;71:110594. View abstract.
Lee SJ, Jeong SJ, Lee YC, et al. Effects of high-dose alpha-lipoic acid on heart rate variability of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Korea. Diabetes Metab J. 2017 Aug;41(4):275-83. View abstract.
Leong J. Y., van der Merwe J., Pepe S., Bailey M., Perkins A., Lymbury R., Esmore D., Marasco S., Rosenfeldt F. Perioperative metabolic therapy improves redox status and outcomes in cardiac surgery patients: a randomised trial. Heart Lung Circ 2010;19(10):584-591. View abstract.
Letizia Mauro G, Cataldo P, Barbera G, Sanfilippo A. a-Lipoic acid and superoxide dismutase in the management of chronic neck pain: a prospective randomized study. Drugs R D 2014;14(1):1-7. View abstract.
Li N, Yan W, Hu X, et al. Effects of oral a-lipoic acid administration on body weight in overweight or obese subjects: a crossover randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017;86(5):680-7. View abstract.
Liu F., Zhang Y., Yang M., Liu B., Shen Y. D., Jia W. P., Xiang K. S. [Curative effect of alpha-lipoic acid on peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: a clinical study]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007;87(38):2706-2709. View abstract.
Lopez-D'alessandro E., Escovich L. Combination of alpha lipoic acid and gabapentin, its efficacy in the treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011;16(5):e635-e640. View abstract.
López-Jornet P., Camacho-Alonso F., and Leon-Espinosa, S. Efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-treatment study. J Oral Rehabil 2009;36(1):52-57. View abstract.
Lott I. T., Doran E., Nguyen V. Q., Tournay A., Head E., Gillen D. L. Down syndrome and dementia: a randomized, controlled trial of antioxidant supplementation. Am J Med Genet A 2011;155A(8):1939-1948. View abstract.
Maesaka H, Komiya K, Misugi K, Tada K. Hyperalaninemia hyperpyruvicemia and lactic acidosis due to pyruvate carboxylase deficiency of the liver; treatment with thiamine and lipoic acid. Eur J Pediatr 1976;122:159-68. View abstract.
Magis D., Ambrosini A., Sandor P., Jacquy J., Laloux P., Schoenen J. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thioctic acid in migraine prophylaxis. Headache 2007;47(1):52-57. View abstract.
Marino R., Torretta S., Capaccio P., Pignataro L., Spadari F. Different therapeutic strategies for burning mouth syndrome: preliminary data. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39(8):611-616. View abstract.
Marshall AW, Graul RS, Morgan MY, Sherlock S. Treatment of alcohol-related liver disease with thioctic acid: a six-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Gut 1982;23:1088-93. View abstract.
Matalon R, Stumpf DA, Michals K, et al. Lipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency with primary lactic acidosis: favorable response to treatment with oral lipoic acid. J Pediatr 1984;104:65-9. View abstract.
Mazloom Z., Ansar H. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetics. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;11(3):245-250.
Memeo A., Loiero M. Thioctic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Clin Drug Investig 2008;28(8):495-500. View abstract.
Merin JP, Matsuyama M, Kira T, et al. Alpha-lipoic acid blocks HIV-1 LTR-dependent expression of hygromycin resistance in THP-1 stable transformants. FEBS Lett 1996;394:9-13. View abstract.
Moffa S, Improta I, Rocchetti S, Mezza T, Giaccari A. Potential cause-effect relationship between insulin autoimmune syndrome and alpha lipoic acid: Two case reports. Nutrition. 2019;57:1-4. View abstract.
Mohammadshahi M, Zakizadeh E, Ahmadi-Angali K, Ravanbakhsh M, Helli B. The synergic effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation and electrical isotonic contraction on anthropometric measurements and the serum levels of VEGF, NO, sirtuin-1, and PGC1-α in obese people undergoing a weight loss diet. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2020:1-7. View abstract.
Moretti R, Angeletti C, Minora S. Multiple organ failure and shock following acute alpha lipoic acid (ALA) intoxication. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2019;57(8):749-751. View abstract.
Murina F, Graziottin A, Felice R, Gambini D. Alpha lipoic acid plus omega-3 fatty acids for vestibulodynia associated with painful bladder syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2017;39(3):131-7. View abstract.
Murray GL, Colombo J. (r)Alpha lipoic acid is a safe, effective pharmacologic therapy of chronic orthostatic hypotension associated with low sympathetic tone. Int J Angiol. 2019;28(3):188-193. View abstract.
Nagamatsu M, Nickander KK, Schmelzer JD, et al. Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabet Care 1995;18:1160-7. View abstract.
Namazi N, Larijani B, Azadbakht L. Alpha-lipoic acid supplement in obesity treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 8 pii:S0261-5614(17)30212-1.View abstract.
Packer L, Tritschler HJ, Wessel K. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic Biol Med 1997;22:359-78. View abstract.
Packer L, Witt EH, Tritschler HJ. Alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med 1995;19:227-50. View abstract.
Packer L. Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;738:257-64. View abstract.
Parente E, Colannino G, Picconi O, Monastra G. Safety of oral alpha-lipoic acid treatment in pregnant women: a retrospective observational study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Sep;21(18):4219-27. View abstract.
Passiatore M, Perna A, De-Vitis R, Taccardo G. The use of alfa-lipoic acid-R (ALA-R) in patients with mild-moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomised controlled open label prospective study. Malays Orthop J. 2020;14(1):1-6. View abstract.
Podymova S. D., Davletshina I. V. [Efficacy of using alpha-lipoic acid (berlition) in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis]. Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2008;(5):77-84. View abstract.
Polat S, Kiliçaslan Ö, Sönmez FT. Alpha-lipoic acid intoxication in an adolescent girl: Case report and review of the literature. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2020;55(3):328-330. View abstract.
Porasuphatana S., Suddee S., Nartnampong A., Konsil J., Harnwong B., Santaweesuk A. Glycemic and oxidative status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus following oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2012;21(1):12-21. View abstract.
Prasad KN. Rationale for using high-dose multiple dietary antioxidants as an adjunct to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. J Nutr 2004;134:3182S-3S. View abstract.
Rago R, Gallo M, Dal Lago A, et al. Controlled, prospective, observational study on the efficiency and tolerability of a combination of potential Nrf2-inducing antioxidants and micronutrients as pre-treatment for ICSI in dyspermic patients with previous failure. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21(7):1645-1652. View abstract.
Rahman S. T., Merchant N., Haque T., Wahi J., Bhaheetharan S., Ferdinand K. C., Khan B. V. The impact of lipoic acid on endothelial function and proteinuria in quinapril-treated diabetic patients with stage I hypertension: results from the QUALITY study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012;17(2):139-145. View abstract.
Rahmanabadi A , Mahboob S , Amirkhizi F , Hosseinpour-Arjmand S , Ebrahimi-Mameghani M . Oral a-lipoic acid supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: effects on adipokines and liver histology features. Food Funct. 2019;10(8):4941-4952. View abstract.
Ranieri M., Sciuscio M., Cortese A. M., Santamato A., Di Teo L., Ianieri G., Bellomo R. G., Stasi M., Megna M. The use of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and rehabilitation in the treatment of back pain: effect on health-related quality of life. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2009;22(3 Suppl):45-50. View abstract.
Rees-Jones RW, Larsen PR. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroid tablets. Metabolism 1977;26(11):1213-1218. View abstract.
Reljanovic M, Reichel G, Rett K, et al. Treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid): A 2-year, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ALADIN II). Alpha Lipoic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy [abstract]. Free Radic Res 1999;31:171-7. View abstract.
Roldan EJ, Perez Lloret A. Thioctic acid in Amanita poisoning (letter). Crit Care Med 1986;14:753-4.
Ruhnau KJ, Meissner HP, Finn JR, et al. Effects of 3-week oral treatment with the antioxidant thioctic acid (alpha-lipoic acid) in symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabet Med 1999;16:1040-3. View abstract.
Sabanovic M, Jasic M, Odobasic A, et al. Alpha lipoic acid reduces symptoms and inflammation biomarkers in patients with chronic hemorrhoidal illness. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2018;88(5-6):281-90. View abstract.
Sabeel AI, Kurkus J, Lindholm T. Intensive Hemodialysis and Hemoperfusion Treatment of Amanita Mushroom Poisoning. Mycopathologia 1995;131:107-14. View abstract.
Sachse G, Willms B. Efficacy of thioctic acid in the therapy of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Hormone Metab Res Suppl 1980;9:105-7. View abstract.
Sadykova H. G., Nazhmutdinova, D. K. [Structural and functional condition of the left ventricle in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy]. Lik Sprava 2009;(1-2):22-28. View abstract.
Sardu C, Santulli G, Santamaria M, et al. Effects of alpha lipoic acid on multiple cytokines and biomarkers and recurrence of atrial fibrillation within 1 year of catheter ablation. Am J Cardiol. 2017;119(9):1382-1386. View abstract.
Sarezky D, Raquib AR, Dunaief JL, Kim BJ. Tolerability in the elderly population of high-dose alpha lipoic acid: a potential antioxidant therapy for the eye. Clin Ophthalmol. 2016 Sep 29;10:1899-1903. View abstract.
Schimmelpfennig W, Renger F, Wack R, et al. [Results of a prospective double-blind study with alpha-lipoic acid against placebo in alcoholic liver damage] (Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Doppelblindstudie mit Alpha-Liponsäure gegen Plazebo bei alkoholischen Leberschäden). Dtsch Gesundheitswes 1983;38(18):690-693
Segermann J, Hotze A, Ulrich H, Rao GS. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and on serum lipid-, protein- and glucose levels. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:1294-8. View abstract.
Streeper RS, Henriksen EJ, Jacob S, et al. Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 1997;273:E185-91. View abstract.
Sun Y, Guan X, Wang H, et al. Randomized clinical trial of combined therapy with oral a-lipoic acid and NB-UVB for nonsegmental stable vitiligo. Dermatol Ther. 2021;34(1):e14610. View abstract.
Sun Y. D., Dong Y. D., Fan R., Zhai L. L., Bai Y. L., Jia L. H. Effect of (R)-a-lipoic acid supplementation on serum lipids and antioxidative ability in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;60(4):293-297. View abstract.
Suzuki YJ, Aggarwal BB, Packer L. Alpha-lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation in human T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1992;189:1709-15. View abstract.
Tankova T., Koev D., Dakovska, L. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy (controlled, randomized, open-label study). Rom J Intern Med 2004;42(2):457-464. View abstract.
Teichert J, Kern J, Tritschler HJ. Investigations on the pharmacokinetics of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:625-8. View abstract.
Thom E. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the clinical efficacy of oral treatment with DermaVite on ageing symptoms of the skin. J Int Med Res 2005;33(3):267-272. View abstract.
Tolunay O, Celik T, Komur M, Gezgin AE, Kaya MS, Celik U. A rare cause of status epilepticus: alpha lipoic acid intoxication, case report and review of the literature. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015 Nov;19(6):730-2. View abstract.
Tromba L, Perla FM, Carbotta G, Chiesa C, Pacifico L. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese youths: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Nutrients 2019;11(2). pii: E375. View abstract.
Vajdi M, Abbasalizad Farhangi M. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation significantly reduces the risk of obesity in an updated systematic review and dose response meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. Int J Clin Pract. 2020;74(6):e13493. View abstract.
Vilas GL, Aldonatti C, San Martin de Viale LC, Rios de Molina MC. Effect of Alpha-lipoic acid amide on hexachlorobenzene porphyria. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1999;47:815-23. View abstract.
Vincent HK, Bourguignon CM, Vincent KR, Taylor AG. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in peripheral arterial disease: a pilot study. J Alt Complement Med 2007;13:577-84. View abstract.
Vita PM, Restelli A, Caspani P, et al. [Chronic use of glucomannan in the dietary treatment of severe obesity]. Minerva Med 1992;83:135-9. View abstract.
Volchegorskii I. A., Alekseev M. N., Volchegorskaia M. I., Rassokhina L. M. [Effect of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol on neuro- and the affective status in patients at early stages of diabetic foot syndrome]. Klin Med (Mosk) 2008;86(10):52-59. View abstract.
Volchegorskii I. A., Rassokhina L. M., Koliadich M. I., Alekseev M. I. [Comparative study of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol effects on affective status, cognitive functions and quality of life in diabetes mellitus patients]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2011;74(11):17-23. View abstract.
Witman M. A., McDaniel J., Fjeldstad A. S., Ives S. J., Zhao J., Nativi J. N., Stehlik J., Wray D. W., Richardson R. S. A differing role of oxidative stress in the regulation of central and peripheral hemodynamics during exercise in heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012;303(10):H1237-H1244. View abstract.
Xu Q, Pan J, Yu J, et al. Meta-analysis of methylcobalamin alone and in combination with lipoic acid in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013;101(2):99-105. View abstract.
Yoshida I, Sweetman L, Kulovich S, et al. Effect of lipoic acid in patient with defective activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. Pediatr Res 1990;27:75-9. View abstract.
Yousefi M, Kavianpour M, Hesami S, Rashidi Nooshabadi M, Khadem Haghighian H. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid at the combination with mefenamic acid in girls with primary dysmenorrhea: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2019;35(9):782-786. View abstract.
Yukina M, Nuralieva N, Solovyev M, Troshina E, Vasilyev E. Insulin autoimmune syndrome. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2020;2020:19-0159. View abstract.
Zhang L, Zhang HY, Huang FC, Huang Q, Liu C, Li JR. Study on the clinical value of alprostadil combined with alpha-lipoic acid in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with erectile dysfunction. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Sep;20(18):3930-33. View abstract.
Zhang Y., Han P., Wu N., He B., Lu Y., Li S., Liu Y., Zhao S., Liu L., Li Y. Amelioration of lipid abnormalities by a-lipoic acid through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011;19(8):1647-1653. View abstract.
Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau K, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A 7-month, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial (ALADIN III Study). Diabetes Care 1999;22:1296-301. View abstract.
Ziegler D, Hanefeld M, Ruhnau KJ, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A 3-week, multicentre randomized controlled trial (ALADIN Study). Diabetologia 1995;38:1425-33. View abstract.
Ziegler D, Nowak H, Kempler P, et al. Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: A meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2004;21:114-21. View abstract.
Ziegler D, Schatz H, Conrad F, et al. Effects of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid on cardiac autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1997;20:369-73. View abstract.
Ziegler D., Ametov A., Barinov A., Dyck P. J., Gurieva I., Low P. A., Munzel U., Yakhno N., Raz I., Novosadova M., Maus J., Samigullin, R. Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: the SYDNEY 2 trial. Diabetes Care 2006;29(11):2365-2370. View abstract.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.