2-[carbamimidoyl(methyl)amino]acetic acid, Cr, Creatin, Creatina, Créatine, Créatine Anhydre, Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Citrate, Créatine Citrate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Créatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Creatine Gluconate, Creatine Hydrochloride, Créatine Kré Alkaline, Creatine Malate, Créatine Malate, Creatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydratée, Creatine Pyroglutamate, Créatine Pyroglutamate, Creatine Pyruvate, Créatine Pyruvate, Dicreatine Malate, Dicréatine Malate, Di-Creatine Malate, Éthyle Ester de Créatine, Glycine, Kreatin, Kre-Alkalyn Pyruvate, Malate de Tricréatine, N-(aminoiminométhyl)-N-Méthyl, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N methyl glycine, N-amidinosarcosine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphocréatine, Tricreatine HCA, Tricréatine HCA, Tricreatine Malate, Tricréatine Malate.<br/><br/>


Overview Information

Creatine is a chemical that is found in the body. It is found mostly in muscles but also in the brain. It is also found in foods such as red meat and seafood. Creatine can also be made in the laboratory.

Creatine is most commonly used for improving exercise performance and increasing muscle mass in athletes and older adults. There is some science supporting the use of creatine in improving the athletic performance of young, healthy people during brief high-intensity activity such as sprinting. Because of this, creatine is often used as a dietary supplement to improve muscle strength and athletic performance. In the U.S., a majority of sports nutrition supplements, which total $2.7 billion in annual sales, contain creatine.

Creatine use is allowed by the International Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and professional sports.

In addition to improving athletic performance and muscle strength, creatine is taken by mouth for creatine deficiency syndromes that affect the brain, aging, bone density, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), depression, diabetes, exercise tolerance, fibromyalgia, Huntington's disease, disease that cause inflammation in the muscles (idiopathic inflammatory myopathies), Parkinson's disease, diseases of the muscles and nerves, multiple sclerosis, muscle atrophy, muscle cramps, breathing problems in infants while sleeping, head trauma, Rett syndrome, an eye disease called gyrate atrophy, inherited disorders that affect the senses and movement, schizophrenia, muscle breakdown in the spine, and recovery from surgery. It is also taken by mouth to slow the worsening of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, McArdle's disease, and for various muscular dystrophies.

People apply creatine to the skin for aging skin.

How does it work?

Creatine is involved in making the energy muscles need to work.

Vegetarians and other people who have lower total creatine levels when they start taking creatine supplements seem to get more benefit than people who start with a higher level of creatine. Skeletal muscle will only hold a certain amount of creatine; adding more won't raise levels any more. This "saturation point" is usually reached within the first few days of taking a "loading dose."


Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Age-related muscle loss. Creatine seems to improve muscle strength in older adults who are also performing resistance training compared to resistance training alone. But it doesn't seem to be beneficial when taken as a single dose or when used without resistance training.
  • Athletic performance. Creatine seems to help improve rowing performance, jumping height, and soccer performance in athletes. But the effect of creatine on sprinting, cycling, or swimming performance varies. The mixed results may relate to the small sizes of the studies, the differences in creatine doses, and differences in test used to measure performance. Creatine does not seem to improve serving ability in tennis players.
  • Syndromes caused by problems metabolizing creatine. Some people have a disorder that prevents their body from making creatine. This can lead to low levels of creatine in the brain. Low levels of creatine in the brain can lead to decreased mental function, seizures, autism, and movement problems. Taking creating by mouth daily for up to 3 years can increase creatine levels in the brain in children and young adults with a disorder of creatine production called guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. This can help improve movement and reduce seizures. But it doesn't improve mental ability. Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency is another disorder that prevents the body from making creatine. In children with this condition, taking creatine for up to 8 years seems to improve attention, language, and mental performance. But taking creatine does not seem to improve brain creatine levels, movement, or mental function in children who have a disorder in which creatine isn't transported properly.
  • Muscle strength. There is a lot of mixed research on creatine's ability to improve muscle strength. However, analyses of this research show that creatine seems to modestly improve upper body strength and lower body strength in both younger and older adults.

Possibly Ineffective for

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease). Taking creatine by mouth does not seem to slow disease progression or improve survival in people with ALS.
  • Inherited disease called Huntington's disease. Research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily for 2 years does not improve muscle strength, coordination, or symptoms in people with Huntington's disease.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Skin aging. Early research shows that applying cream containing creatine, guarana, and glycerol to the face daily for 6 weeks reduces wrinkles and skin sagging in men. Other research suggests that a cream containing creatine and folic acid reduces wrinkles and improves sun-damaged skin.
  • Lung disease (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Early research on the effects of creatine in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking creating daily does not improve lung function. However, other research suggests that taking creatine may improve lung function or exercise capacity.
  • Heart failure. Some early research shows that taking creatine daily for 5-10 days improves muscle strength and endurance but does not improve symptoms of heart failure. Taking lower doses of creatine daily for 6 months does not improve exercise capacity or heart failure symptoms in men.
  • Depression. Early research suggests that taking creatine daily for 8 weeks enhances the effects of the antidepressant drug escitalopram in women with major depressive disorder.
  • Diabetes. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth for 5 days reduces blood sugar after eating in people with newly diagnosed diabetes. However, the effects of taking creatine for longer than 5 days in people with diabetes are not know.
  • Fibromyalgia. Early research suggests that taking 5 grams of creatine four times daily for 5 days followed by 5 grams daily for 16 weeks improves strength in women with fibromyalgia. But creatine does not seem to improve aerobic exercise capacity, pain, sleep, quality of life, or mental function in people with fibromyalgia.
  • Vision loss (gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina). Early research shows that creatine deficiency, which has been associated with this form of vision loss, can be corrected with supplements. Taking creatine daily for one year seems to slow eye damage and vision loss.
  • Inherited nerve damage (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy). Early research in people with inherited nerve damage diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, suggest that taking creatine by mouth daily for between one and 12 weeks has no effect on muscle strength or endurance.
  • Muscle diseases such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Early studies suggest taking creatine might produce small improvements in muscle strength in people with these conditions.
  • Muscle disorder called McArdle disease. Some early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily improves muscle function in some people with McArdle disease. However, taking higher doses of creatine seem to make muscle pain worse.
  • Muscular and neurological diseases called mitochondrial myopathies. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth does not improve muscle function or quality of life in people with mitochondrial myopathies. However, creatine might improve some measures of muscle strength.
  • Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily for 5 days does not improve exercise ability in people with multiple sclerosis.
  • Loss of muscle tissue. Taking creatine by mouth daily does not seem to increase muscle mass or strength in men with muscle loss due to HIV. However, taking creatine seems to help maintain muscle mass and reduce the loss of muscle strength that is associated with having to wear a cast.
  • Muscle cramps. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth before hemodialysis treatments seems to reduce muscle cramps.
  • Muscular dystrophy. Early research on the use of creatine by mouth in people with muscular dystrophy is not clear. Some evidence shows that muscle strength and fatigue seem to improve after taking creatine daily for 8-16 weeks. However, other research suggests that creatine provides no benefit for people with muscular dystrophy.
  • Breathing problems while sleeping in newborns. Early research shows that giving creatine to premature infants does not improve breathing problems while sleeping.
  • Brain injury. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 7 days increases the ability to exercise by increasing lung function in people with a spinal cord injury. However, other research shows that creatine does not improve wrist muscle or hand function. Early research also shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 6 months reduces amnesia following a traumatic brain injury in children.
  • Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that taking creating by mouth daily in combination with strengthening exercises improves physical functioning in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis.
  • Parkinson's disease. Early research suggests that taking creatine twice daily for 12-18 months slows the progression of Parkinson's disease in people who have not yet started conventional medicines.
  • Nervous system disorder called Rett syndrome. Early research suggests that taking creating daily for 6 months can slightly improve symptoms in females with Rett syndrome.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily increases lean muscle mass and may improve muscle strength, but does not improve physical functioning in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. In children, taking a specific supplement containing creatine and fatty acids twice daily for 30 days might reduce pain and swelling. But the effects of creatine alone are not clear.
  • Schizophrenia. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 2 months does not improve symptoms or mental function in people with schizophrenia.
  • Muscle loss in the spine. Early research suggests that children with muscle loss in the spine do not benefit from taking creatine by mouth.
  • Recovery from surgery. Early research shows that taking creatine daily does not speed up recovery of muscle strength after surgery.
  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of creatine for these uses.
Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Creatine is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth at doses up to 25 grams daily for up to 14 days. Lower doses up to 4-5 grams taken daily for up to 18 months are also LIKELY SAFE. Some early research also suggests that creatine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken in doses up to 10 grams daily for up to 5 years.

Creatine can cause stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, and muscle cramping.

Creatine causes muscles to draw water from the rest of your body. Be sure to drink extra water to make up for this. Also, if you are taking creatine, don't exercise in the heat. It might cause you to become dehydrated.

Many people who use creatine gain weight. This is because creatine causes the muscles to hold water, not because it actually builds muscle.

There is concern that creatine might cause irregular heartbeat in some people. But more information is needed to know if creatine can cause this problem.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking creatine if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Creatine is POSSIBLY SAFE in children when taken by mouth appropriately. Creatine 3-5 grams daily for 2-6 months has been taken safely in children 5-18 years of age. Creatine 2 grams daily for 6 months has been taken safely in children 2-5 years of age. Additionally, creatine 0.1-0.4 grams/kg daily for up to 6 months has been taken safely in both infants and children.

Bipolar disorder: There have been cases of manic episodes in people with bipolar disorder who took creatine daily for 4 weeks. Creatine might make mania worse in people with bipolar disorder.

Kidney disease or diabetes: Do not use creatine if you have kidney disease or a disease such as diabetes that increases your chance of developing kidney disease. There is some concern that creatine might make kidney disease worse.

Parkinson's disease: Caffeine and creatine taken together may make Parkinson's disease get worse faster. If you have Parkinson's disease and take creatine, use caffeine with caution.



Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

  • Medications that can harm the kidneys (Nephrotoxic Drugs) interacts with CREATINE

    Taking high doses of creatine might harm the kidneys. Some medications can also harm the kidneys. Taking creatine with medications that can harm the kidneys might increase the chance of kidney damage.<br /><br /> Some of these medications that can harm the kidneys include cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); aminoglycosides including amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin, Gentak, others), and tobramycin (Nebcin, others); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, others), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene); and numerous others.



The following doses have been studied in scientific research:



  • Age-related muscle loss: Many different dosing regimens have been used; however, most use a short-term “loading dose” followed by a long-term maintenance dose. Loading doses are typically 20 grams daily for 4-7 days. Maintenance doses are typically 2-10 grams daily. Older adults seem to only experience benefits from creatine supplementation when it is combined with resistance training.
  • For athletic performance: Many different dosing regimens have been used; however, most use a short-term "loading dose" followed by a long-term maintenance dose. Loading doses are typically 20 grams daily for 4-7 days. Maintenance doses are typically 2-10 grams daily.
  • For muscle strength: Many different dosing regimens have been used; however, most use a short-term "loading dose" followed by a long-term maintenance dose. The most common loading doses are typically around 20 grams daily for 5-7 days. Maintenance doses ranging from 1 to 27 grams daily have also been used.

  • For syndromes caused by problems making or transporting creatine: Doses of 400-800 mg of creatine per kg of body weight have been taken daily for up to 8 years. Also, 4-8 grams of creatine has been taken daily for up to 25 months.

View References


  • Wadman, R. I., Bosboom, W. M., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., Iannaccone, S. T., and Vrancken, A. F. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2011;(12):CD006282. View abstract.
  • Wadman, R. I., Bosboom, W. M., van der Pol, W. L., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., Iannaccone, S. T., and Vrancken, A. F. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD006282. View abstract.
  • Walter, A. A., Smith, A. E., Herda, T. J., Ryan, E. D., Moon, J. R., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. R. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold in cycle ergometry in college-age men. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2008;18(2):142-151. View abstract.
  • Walter, M. C., Reilich, P., Lochmuller, H., Kohnen, R., Schlotter, B., Hautmann, H., Dunkl, E., Pongratz, D., and Muller-Felber, W. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. 2002;249(12):1717-1722. View abstract.
  • Wang CH, Finkel RS Bertini ES Schroth M Simonds A Wong B et al. Consensus statement for standard of care in spinal muscular atrophy. Journal of Child Neurology 2007;22(8):1027-1049.
  • Watanabe, A., Kato, N., and Kato, T. Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation. Neurosci.Res 2002;42(4):279-285. View abstract.
  • Watsford, M. L., Murphy, A. J., Spinks, W. L., and Walshe, A. D. Creatine supplementation and its effect on musculotendinous stiffness and performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(1):26-33. View abstract.
  • Watson, G., Casa, D. J., Fiala, K. A., Hile, A., Roti, M. W., Healey, J. C., Armstrong, L. E., and Maresh, C. M. Creatine use and exercise heat tolerance in dehydrated men. J.Athl.Train. 2006;41(1):18-29. View abstract.
  • Weber, P., Vlasicova, Y., Labrova, R., and Semrad, B. [Use of creatine phosphate in treatment of cardiocerebral syndrome associated with acute myocardial infarct in the aged]. Cas.Lek.Cesk. 1-18-1995;134(2):53-56. View abstract.
  • Weiss, B. A. and Powers, M. E. Creatine supplementation does not impair the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2006;46(4):555-563. View abstract.
  • Whitt, K. N., Ward, S. C., Deniz, K., Liu, L., Odin, J. A., and Qin, L. Cholestatic liver injury associated with whey protein and creatine supplements. Semin.Liver Dis. 2008;28(2):226-231. View abstract.
  • Wilder, N., Gilders, R., Hagerman, F., and Deivert, R. G. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16(3):343-352. View abstract.
  • Willoughby, D. S. and Rosene, J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(10):1674-1681. View abstract.
  • Wiroth, J. B., Bermon, S., Andrei, S., Dalloz, E., Hebuterne, X., and Dolisi, C. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on maximal pedalling performance in older adults. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84(6):533-539. View abstract.
  • Wright, G. A., Grandjean, P. W., and Pascoe, D. D. The effects of creatine loading on thermoregulation and intermittent sprint exercise performance in a hot humid environment. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2007;21(3):655-660. View abstract.
  • Young, P., De, Jonghe P., Stogbauer, F., and Butterfass-Bahloul, T. Treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(1):CD006052. View abstract.
  • Ziegenfuss T, Lowery LM, and Lemon PW. Acute fluid volume changes in men during three days of creatine supplementation. J Exerc Physiol Online 1998;1(3): .
  • Ziegenfuss, T. N., Rogers, M., Lowery, L., Mullins, N., Mendel, R., Antonio, J., and Lemon, P. Effect of creatine loading on anaerobic performance and skeletal muscle volume in NCAA Division I athletes. Nutrition 2002;18(5):397-402. View abstract.
  • Zuniga, J. M., Housh, T. J., Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., and Schmidt, R. J. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2012;26(6):1651-1656. View abstract.
  • 2016=2017 NCAA Banned Drug List. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  • Alves CR, Santiago BM, Lima FR, et al. Creatine supplementation in fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2013;65(9):1449-59. View abstract.
  • Anabolic Steroid Act, Public Law No. 108-358, 2004.
  • Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 1998;19:617-22. View abstract.
  • Baker TP, Candow DG, Farthing JP. Effect of preexercise creatine ingestion on muscle performance in healthy aging males. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Jun;30(6):1763-6. View abstract.
  • Balsom PD, Soderland K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Med 1994;18:268-80. View abstract.
  • Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;154:303-10. View abstract.
  • Barnett C, Hinds M, Jenkins DG. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycle performance. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:35-9. View abstract.
  • Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8. View abstract.
  • Bender A, Koch W, Elstner M, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology 2006;67:1262-4. View abstract.
  • Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? Pharmacol Res 2000;41:255-64. View abstract.
  • Bergnes G, Yuan W, Khandekar VS, et al. Creatine and phosphocreatine analogs: anticancer activity and enzymatic analysis. Oncol Res 1996;8:121-30. View abstract.
  • Bermon S, Venembre P, Sachet C, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. View abstract.
  • Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994;69:268-76. View abstract.
  • Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:369-72.. View abstract.
  • Boychuk KE, Lanovaz JL, Krentz JR, Lishchynsky JT, Cando DG, Farthing JP. Creatine supplementation does not alter neuromuscular recovery after eccentric exercise. Muscle Nerv. 2016 Sep;54(3):487-95. View abstract.
  • Buford TW, Kreider RB, Stout JR, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2007;4:6. View abstract.
  • Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Forbes SC. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health. Endocrine 2014;45(3):354-61. View abstract.
  • Candow DG, Zello GA, Ling B, et al. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults. Res Sports Med 2014;22(1):61-74. View abstract.
  • Carvalho AP, Rassi S, Fontana KE, et al. Influence of creatine supplementation on the functional capacity of patients with heart failure. Arg Bras Cardiol 2012;99:623-9. View abstract.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hyperthermia and dehydration-related deaths associated with rapid weight loss in three collegiate wrestlers - North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Michigan, November-December 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998:47:105-8. View abstract.
  • Chambers DJ, Haire K, Morley N, et al. St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia: enhanced protection with exogenous creatine phosphate. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:67-75. View abstract.
  • Chenoy R, Hussain S, Tayob Y, et al. Effect of oral gamolenic acid from evening primrose oil on menopausal flushing (abstract). BMJ 1994;308:501-3. View abstract.
  • Chorney JA, Cohen J. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis associated with creatine supplementation (letter). Arch Dermatol 2006;142:1662-3. View abstract.
  • Chung Y, Alexanderson H, Pipitone N, et al. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:694-702. View abstract.
  • Cisowski M, Bochenek A, Kucewicz E, et al. The use of exogenous creatine phosphate for myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1996;37:75-80. View abstract.
  • Collins J, Longhurst G, Roschel H, Gualano B. Resistance training and co-supplementation with creatine and protein in older subjects with frailty. J Frailty Aging. 2016;5(2):126-34. View abstract.
  • Cooke WH, Barnes WS. The influence of recovery duration on high-intensity exercise performance after oral creatine supplementation. Can J Appl Physiol 1997;22:454-67. View abstract.
  • Cooke WH, Grandjean PW, Barnes WS. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergometry. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1995;78:670-3. View abstract.
  • Creapure (Creatine Monohydrate). Toxicological Datasheet. Degussa BioActives. Available at:
  • Creatine in the dock. Men's Fitness Magazine (Australia). September 2013. Available at:
  • Dawson B, Cutler M, Moody A, et al. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61. View abstract.
  • de Salles Painelli V, Alves VT, Ugrinowitsch C, et al. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2014;114(8):1749-55.del Favero S, Roschel H, Artioli G, et al. Creatine but not betaine supplementation increases muscle phosphorylcreatine content and strength performance. Amino Acids 2012;42(6):2299-305. View abstract.
  • Demant TW, Rhodes EC. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. Sports Med 1999;28:49-60. View abstract.
  • Deminice R, Rosa FT, Pfrimer K, Ferrioli E, Jorao AA, Freitas E. Creatine supplementation increases total body water in soccer players: a deuterium oxide dilution study. Int J Sports Med. 2016 Feb;37(2):149-53. View abstract.
  • Devaraj S, Jialal I. Low-density lipoprotein postsecretory modification, monocyte function, and circulating adhesion molecules in type 2 diabetic patients with and without macrovascular complications: the effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Circulation 2000;102:191-6. View abstract.
  • Devries MC, Phillips SM. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in older adults - a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014;46(6):1194-203. View abstract.
  • Duke JA, Vasquez R. Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1994.
  • Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Colch) 1996;91:113-8. View abstract.
  • Febbraio MA, Flanagan TR, Snow RJ, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;155:387-95. View abstract.
  • Ferraro S, Codella C, Palumbo F, et al. Hemodynamic effects of creatine phosphate in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind comparison trial versus placebo. Clin Cardiol 1996;19:699-703. View abstract.
  • Fielder AR. A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:1463;discussion 1463-6. View abstract.
  • Fight against doping. The Olympic Games Web site. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  • Forbes SC, Sletten N, Durrer C, Myette-Cote E, Candow D, Little JP. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not augment fitness, performance, or body composition adaptations in response to four weeks of high-intensity interval training in young females. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Jun;27(3):285-92. View abstract.
  • Francaux M, Demeure R, Goudemant JF, Poortmans JR. Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:139-45. View abstract.
  • Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:165-8. View abstract.
  • Galvan E, Walker Dk, Simbo SY, et al. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Mar 31;13:12. View abstract.
  • Ganguly S, Jayappa S, Dash AK. Evaluation of the stability of creatine in solution prepared from effervescent creatine formulations. AAPS PharmSciTech 2003;4(2):E25. View abstract.
  • Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, Trimble MH. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:993-6. View abstract.
  • Golini J, Jones WL. Kre-Celazine&reg; as a viable treatment for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis/juvenile idiopathic arthritis - a pilot study. J Med Food 2014;17(9):1022-6. View abstract.
  • Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res 1995;30:413-8. View abstract.
  • Graham AS, Hatton RC. Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 1999;39:803-10. View abstract.
  • Green AL, Hultman E, Macdonald IA, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E821-6. View abstract.
  • Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202. . View abstract.
  • Greenhaff P. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;352:233-4. View abstract.
  • Groeneveld GJ, Veldink JH, van der Tweel I, et al. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2003;53:437-45. . View abstract.
  • Gualano B, Macedo AR, Alves CR, et al. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Exp Gerontol 2014;53:7-15. View abstract.
  • Gualano B, Ugrinowitsch C, Novaes RB, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008;103:33-40. View abstract.
  • Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992;83:367-74. View abstract.
  • Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007;21:107-15. View abstract.
  • Heinanen K, Nanto-Salonen K, Komu M, et al. Creatine corrects muscle 31P spectrum in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:1060-5. View abstract.
  • Hersch SM, Schifitto G, Oakes D, et al. The CREST-E study for creatine for Huntington disease: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology. 2017 Aug 8;89(6):594-601. View abstract.
  • Hibbard MK, Sandri-Goldin, RM. Arginine-rich regions succeeding the nuclear localization region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ICP27 are required for efficient nuclear localization and late gene expression. J Virol 1995;69:4656-7. View abstract.
  • Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Shanklin, M., Kang, J., and Faigenbaum, A. D. Effect of a pre-exercise energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2008;22(3):874-882. View abstract.
  • Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, et al. Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:232-7. View abstract.
  • Huyzen RJ, Harder MP, Huet RC, et al. Alternative perioperative anticoagulation monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass in aprotinin-treated patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1994;8:153-6. View abstract.
  • Ingwall JS, Morales MF, Stockdale FE, Wildenthal K. Creatine: a possible stimulus skeletal cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Recent Adv Stud Cardiac Struct Metab 1975;8:467-81. View abstract.
  • Jager R, Purpura M, Shao A, et al. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids 2011;40(5):1369-83. View abstract.
  • Jäger R, Purpura M, Shao A, Inoue T, Kreider RB. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids 2011;40(5):1369-83. View abstract.
  • Johannsmeyer S, Candow BG, Brahms CM, Michel D, Zello GA. Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Exp Gerentol. 2016 Oct;83:112-9. View abstract.
  • Jones AM, Atter T, Georg KP. Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999;39:189-96. View abstract.
  • Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17:558-66.. View abstract.
  • Juhn MS, O'Kane JW, Vinci DM. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:593-5.
  • Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:298-304. View abstract.
  • Juhn MS. Oral creatine supplementation. Separating fact from hype. Phys Sportsmed 1999;27:47-50,53-54,56,61,89. View abstract.
  • Kamber M, Koster M, Kreis R, et al. Creatine supplementation - part I: performance, clinical chemistry, and muscle volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1763-9. View abstract.
  • Kammer RT. Lone atrial fibrillation associated with creatine monohydrate supplementation. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:762-4. View abstract.
  • Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, Levine J. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:881-4. View abstract.
  • Klivenyi P, Ferrante RJ, Matthews RT, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Med 1999;5:347-50. View abstract.
  • Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med 1999;340:814-5. View abstract.
  • Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82. View abstract.
  • Kuklo TR, Tis JE, Moores LK, Schaefer RA. Fatal rhabdomyolysis with bilateral gluteal, thigh, and leg compartment syndrome after the Army Physical Fitness Test. A case report. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:112-6. View abstract.
  • Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. Creating supplementation and lower limb strength performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2015;45(9):1285-94. View abstract.
  • Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, et al. Creating supplementation and upper limb strength performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 2017;47(1):163-73. View abstract.
  • Larkin JG, Capell HA, Sturrock RD. Seatone in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1985;44:199-201. View abstract.
  • Laser Reutersward A, Skog K, Jagerstad M. Mutagenicity of pan-fried bovine tissues in relation to their content of creatine, creatinine, monosaccharides and free amino acids. Food Chem Toxicol 1987;25:755-62. View abstract.
  • Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:251-62. View abstract.
  • Li N, Hauser R, Holford T, et al. Muscle-building supplement use and increased risk of testicular germ cell cancer in men from Connecticut and Massachusetts. Br J Cancer 2015;112(7):1247-50. View abstract.
  • Lillie JW, O'Keefe M, Valinski H, et al. Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Cancer Res 1993;53:3172-8. View abstract.
  • Litsky F. Collegiate wrestling deaths raise fears about training. The New York Times. December 19, 1997. Available at:
  • Lobo DM, Tritto AC, da Silva LR, et al. Effects of long-term low-dose dietary creatine supplementation in older women. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Oct;70:97-104. View abstract.
  • Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, et al. Formation of PhIP in a mixture of creatinine, phenylalanine and sugar or aldehyde by aqueous heating. Carcinogenesis 1992;13:827-830. View abstract.
  • Martin KJ, Chen SF, Clark GM, et al. Evaluation of creatine analogues as a new class of anticancer agents using freshly explanted human tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:608-13. View abstract.
  • Matthews RT, Ferrante RJ, Klivenyi P, et al. Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol 1999;157:142-9. View abstract.
  • Matthews RT, Yang L, Jenkins BG, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci 1998;18:156-63. View abstract.
  • McKenna MJ, Morton J, Selig SE, Snow RJ. Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2244-52. View abstract.
  • McNaughton LR, Dalton B, Tarr J. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance in elite performers. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:236-40. View abstract.
  • Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, Tarnopolsky MA. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:291-6. View abstract.
  • Miller EE, Evans AE, Cohn M. Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:3304-8. View abstract.
  • Mujika I, Chatard J, Lacoste L, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1435-41. View abstract.
  • Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:518-25. View abstract.
  • Nagasawa Y, Fujii M, Kajimoto Y, et al. Vitamin K2 and serum cholesterol in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet 1998;351:724. View abstract.
  • Naylor CD, O'Rourke K, Detsky AS, Baker JP. Parenteral nutrition with branched-chain amino acids in hepatic encephalopathy. A meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 1989;97:1033-42. View abstract.
  • NCAA prohibits schools from supplying creatine to students. Reuters Health 2000;Jun 13. Available at: 2000/06/06.13/20000613publ004.html (Accessed 13 June 2000).
  • NINDS NET-PD Investigators. A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2006;66:664-71. View abstract.
  • Odland LM, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:216-9. View abstract.
  • Pepping J. Creatine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1608-10. View abstract.
  • Persky AM, Muller M, Derendorf H, et al. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of oral creatine. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:29-37. . View abstract.
  • Poortmans JR, Auquier H, Renaut V, et al. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men (abstract). Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;76:566-7. View abstract.
  • Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1108-10. View abstract.
  • Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:814-21. . View abstract.
  • Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Morris GS. Creatine supplementation enhances intermittent work performance. (abstract) Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:233-40. View abstract.
  • Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;351:1252-3. View abstract.
  • Ramirez-Campillo R, Gonzalez-Jurado JA, Martinez C, et al. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players. J Sci Med Sport. 2016 Aug;19(8):682-7. View abstract.
  • Rawson ES, Clarkson PM. Acute creatine supplementation in older men. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:71-5. View abstract.
  • Rawson ES, Wehnert ML, Clarkson PM. Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:139-44. View abstract.
  • Rico-Sanz J, Mendez Marco MT. Creatine enhances oxygen uptake and performance during alternating intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:379-85. View abstract.
  • Rico-Sanz J. Creatine reduces human muscle PCr and pH decrements and P(i) accumulation during low-intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:1181-91. View abstract.
  • Robinson SJ. Acute quadriceps compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis in a weight lifter using high-dose creatine supplementation. J Am Board Fam Pract 2000;13:134-7. View abstract.
  • Rossiter HB, Cannell ER, Jakeman PM. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on the 1000-m performance of competitive rowers. J Sports Sci 1996;14:175-9. View abstract.
  • Rossouw F, Kruger PE, Rossouw J. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters. Nutr Res 2000;20:505-14.
  • Sandhu RS, Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM. Renal failure and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients taking performance-enhancing compounds. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. View abstract.
  • Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, et al. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:183-8. View abstract.
  • Schneider-Gold C, Beck M, Wessig C, et al. Creatine monohydrate in DM2/PROMM. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2003;60:500-2.. View abstract.
  • Shearer MJ, Bach A, Kohlmeier M. Chemistry, nutritional sources, tissue distribution and metabolism of vitamin K with special reference to bone health. J Nutr 1996;126:1181S-6S. View abstract.
  • Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. A clinical trial of creatine in ALS. Neurology 2004;63:1656-61. View abstract.
  • Simon DK, Wu C, Tilly BC, et al. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson Disease: a deleterious interaction with creatine. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2015 Sep-Oct;38(5):163-9. View abstract.
  • Sipila I, Rapola J, Simell O, Vannas A. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. N Engl J Med 1981;304:867-70. View abstract.
  • Snow RJ, McKenna MJ, Selig SE, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1667-73. View abstract.
  • Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65. . View abstract.
  • Stricker PR. Other ergogenic agents. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:283-97. View abstract.
  • Tan CW, Hae Tha M, Joo Ng H. Creatine supplementation and venous thrombotic events. Am J Med 2014;127(8):e7-8. View abstract.
  • Tang G, Serfaty-Lacrosniere C, Camilo ME, et al. Gastric acidity influences the blood response to a beta-carotene dose in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:622-6. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology 1999;52:854-7. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve 1997;20:1502-9. View abstract.
  • Tennekoon KH, Jeevathayaparan S, Kurukulasooriya AP, Karunanayake EH. Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31:283-9. View abstract.
  • Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, et al. The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:706-17. View abstract.
  • The Associated Press. Creatine ruled out in athletes' deaths. The New York Times. May 2, 1998. Available at:
  • Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, et al. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Sports Sci 1999;17:853-9. View abstract.
  • Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Roelofs EJ, Hirsch KR, Persky AM, Mock AG. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading. J Strength Cond Res. 2016 May;30(5):1438-46. View abstract.
  • Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. View abstract.
  • Vanakoski J, Kosunen V, Meririnne E, Seppala T. Creatine and caffeine in anaerobic and aerobic exercise: effects on physical performance and pharmacokinetic considerations. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:258-62. View abstract.
  • Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7. View abstract.
  • Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training (abstract). J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63. View abstract.
  • Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, et al. Phosphocreatine resynthesis is not affected by creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:236-42. View abstract.
  • Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. View abstract.
  • Vilella AL, Limsuwat C, Williams DR, Seifert CF. Cholestatic jaundice as a result of combination designer supplement ingestion. Ann Pharmacother 2013;47(7-8):e33. View abstract.
  • Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Arch Neurol 2000;57:956-63. View abstract.
  • WADA Prohibited List. 2017 Prohibited List - Effective January 1, 2017. Available at: Accessed March 12, 2017.
  • Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, et al. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2000;54:1848-50. View abstract.
  • Wang CC, Yang MT, Lu KH, Chan KH. The effects of creatine supplementation on explosive performance and optimal individual postactivation potentiation time. Nutrients. 2016 Mar 4;8(3):143. View abstract.
  • Wilkinson TJ, Lemmy AB, Jones AG, et al. Can creatine supplementation improve body composition and objective physical function in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients? A randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2016 Jun;68(6):729-37. View abstract.
  • Willer B, Stucki G, Hoppeler H, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle weakness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:293-8. View abstract.
  • Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34. View abstract.
  • Young C, Oladipo O, Frasier S, et al. Hemorrhagic stroke in young healthy male following use of sports supplement Jack3d. Mil Med 2012;177(12):1450-4. View abstract.
  • Sakkas, G. K., Mulligan, K., Dasilva, M., Doyle, J. W., Khatami, H., Schleich, T., Kent-Braun, J. A., and Schambelan, M. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS.One. 2009;4(2):e4605. View abstract.
  • Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Wieder, R., Kim, J. S., Vicil, F., and Figueroa, A. Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2011;111(9):1965-1971. View abstract.
  • Saremi A, Gharakhanloo R Sharghi S Gharaati MR Larijani B Omidfar K. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on serum myostatin and GASP-1. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;317(1-2):25-30. View abstract.
  • Satolli F and Marchesi G. Creatine phosphate in the rehabilitation of patients with muscle hypotonotrophy of the lower extremity. Curr Ther Res 1989;46:67-73.
  • Schedel, J. M., Tanaka, H., Kiyonaga, A., Shindo, M., and Schutz, Y. Acute creatine ingestion in human: consequences on serum creatine and creatinine concentrations. Life Sci. 10-29-1999;65(23):2463-2470. View abstract.
  • Schneider, D. A., McDonough, P. J., Fadel, P. J., and Berwick, J. P. Creatine supplementation and the total work performed during 15-s and 1-min bouts of maximal cycling. Aust.J Sci.Med Sport 1997;29(3):65-68. View abstract.
  • Schulze, A., Hess, T., Wevers, R., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., Knopp, M. V., De Deyn, P. P., Bremer, H. J., and Rating, D. Creatine deficiency syndrome caused by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: diagnostic tools for a new inborn error of metabolism. J Pediatr. 1997;131(4):626-631. View abstract.
  • Schulze, A., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., De Deyn, P. P., and Rating, D. Therapeutic trial of arginine restriction in creatine deficiency syndrome. Eur.J Pediatr. 1998;157(7):606-607. View abstract.
  • Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Kern, M., and Devor, S. T. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):421-424. View abstract.
  • Selsby, J. T., DiSilvestro, R. A., and Devor, S. T. Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18(2):311-315. View abstract.
  • Semenovsky, M. L., Shumakov, V. I., Sharov, V. G., Mogilevsky, G. M., Asmolovsky, A. V., Makhotina, L. A., and Saks, V. A. Protection of ischemic myocardium by exogenous phosphocreatine. II. Clinical, ultrastructural, and biochemical evaluations. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 1987;94(5):762-769. View abstract.
  • Sempere, A., Fons, C., Arias, A., Rodriguez-Pombo, P., Merinero, B., Alcaide, P., Capdevila, A., Ribes, A., Duque, R., Eiris, J., Poo, P., Fernandez-Alvarez, E., Campistol, J., and Artuch, R. [Cerebral creatine deficiency: first Spanish patients harbouring mutations in GAMT gene]. Med.Clin.(Barc.) 11-21-2009;133(19):745-749. View abstract.
  • Shomrat, A., Weinstein, Y., and Katz, A. Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82(4):321-325. View abstract.
  • Sijens, P. E., Verbruggen, K. T., Meiners, L. C., Soorani-Lunsing, R. J., Rake, J. P., and Oudkerk, M. 1H chemical shift imaging of the brain in guanidino methyltransferase deficiency, a creatine deficiency syndrome; guanidinoacetate accumulation in the gray matter. Eur Radiol. 2005;15(9):1923-1926. View abstract.
  • Simon, D. K., Swearingen, C. J., Hauser, R. A., Trugman, J. M., Aminoff, M. J., Singer, C., Truong, D., and Tilley, B. C. Caffeine and progression of Parkinson disease. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2008;31(4):189-196. View abstract.
  • Skare, O. C., Skadberg, and Wisnes, A. R. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 2001;11(2):96-102. View abstract.
  • Smith, A. E., Fukuda, D. H., Ryan, E. D., Kendall, K. L., Cramer, J. T., and Stout, J. Ergolytic/ergogenic effects of creatine on aerobic power. Int.J.Sports Med. 2011;32(12):975-981. View abstract.
  • Smith, C. A., Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Yeater, R. A., and Alway, S. E. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2006;34(5):586-594. View abstract.
  • Smith, J. C., Stephens, D. P., Hall, E. L., Jackson, A. W., and Earnest, C. P. Effect of oral creatine ingestion on parameters of the work rate-time relationship and time to exhaustion in high-intensity cycling. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1998;77(4):360-365. View abstract.
  • Smith, S. A., Montain, S. J., Matott, R. P., Zientara, G. P., Jolesz, F. A., and Fielding, R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J Appl.Physiol 1998;85(4):1349-1356. View abstract.
  • Steenge, G. R., Verhoef, P., and Greenhaff, P. L. The effect of creatine and resistance training on plasma homocysteine concentration in healthy volunteers. Arch Intern Med 6-11-2001;161(11):1455-1456. View abstract.
  • Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics. J Strength.Cond.Res 2001;15(4):413-419. View abstract.
  • Stevenson, S. W. and Dudley, G. A. Dietary creatine supplementation and muscular adaptation to resistive overload. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(8):1304-1310. View abstract.
  • Stockler, S., Hanefeld, F., and Frahm, J. Creatine replacement therapy in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a novel inborn error of metabolism. Lancet 9-21-1996;348(9030):789-790. View abstract.
  • Stockler, S., Isbrandt, D., Hanefeld, F., Schmidt, B., and von Figura, K. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man. Am.J Hum.Genet. 1996;58(5):914-922. View abstract.
  • Stockler, S., Marescau, B., De Deyn, P. P., Trijbels, J. M., and Hanefeld, F. Guanidino compounds in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a new inborn error of creatine synthesis. Metabolism 1997;46(10):1189-1193. View abstract.
  • Strozzi C, Bagni B, and Ferri A. Creatine phosphate in the treatment of chronic ischemic heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51(6):925-932.
  • Sullivan, P. G., Geiger, J. D., Mattson, M. P., and Scheff, S. W. Dietary supplement creatine protects against traumatic brain injury. Ann.Neurol. 2000;48(5):723-729. View abstract.
  • Sykut-Cegielska, J., Gradowska, W., Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., and Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S. Biochemical and clinical characteristics of creatine deficiency syndromes. Acta Biochim.Pol. 2004;51(4):875-882. View abstract.
  • Syrotuik, D. G. and Bell, G. J. Acute creatine monohydrate supplementation: a descriptive physiological profile of responders vs. nonresponders. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18(3):610-617. View abstract.
  • Syrotuik, D. G., Game, A. B., Gillies, E. M., and Bell, G. J. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance. Can J Appl.Physiol 2001;26(6):527-542. View abstract.
  • Tabrizi, S. J., Blamire, A. M., Manners, D. N., Rajagopalan, B., Styles, P., Schapira, A. H., and Warner, T. T. Creatine therapy for Huntington's disease: Clinical and MRS findings in a 1-year pilot study. Neurology 7-8-2003;61(1):141-142. View abstract.
  • Taes, Y. E., Delanghe, J. R., De Bacquer, D., Langlois, M., Stevens, L., Geerolf, I., Lameire, N. H., and De Vriese, A. S. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2004;66(6):2422-2428. View abstract.
  • Taes, Y. E., Marescau, B., De, Vriese A., De Deyn, P. P., Schepers, E., Vanholder, R., and Delanghe, J. R. Guanidino compounds after creatine supplementation in renal failure patients and their relation to inflammatory status. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23(4):1330-1335. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky, M. A. and MacLennan, D. P. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(4):452-463. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky, M. A. Potential benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly. Curr.Opin.Clin Nutr.Metab Care 2000;3(6):497-502. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky, M. A., Mahoney, D. J., Vajsar, J., Rodriguez, C., Doherty, T. J., Roy, B. D., and Biggar, D. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology 5-25-2004;62(10):1771-1777. View abstract.
  • Tarnopolsky, M., Mahoney, D., Thompson, T., Naylor, H., and Doherty, T. J. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Muscle Nerve 2004;29(1):51-58. View abstract.
  • Teicher, B. A., Menon, K., Northey, D., Liu, J., Kufe, D. W., and Kaddurah-Daouk, R. Cyclocreatine in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1995;35(5):411-416. View abstract.
  • Terrillion, K. A., Kolkhorst, F. W., Dolgener, F. A., and Joslyn, S. J. The effect of creatine supplementation on two 700-m maximal running bouts. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7(2):138-143. View abstract.
  • Theodorou, A. S., Havenetidis, K., Zanker, C. L., O'Hara, J. P., King, R. F., Hood, C., Paradisis, G., and Cooke, C. B. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(2):265-269. View abstract.
  • Thorelius, J., Thelin, S., Ronquist, G., Halden, E., and Hansson, H. E. Biochemical and functional effects of creatine phosphate in cardioplegic solution during aortic valve surgery--a clinical study. Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg 1992;40(1):10-13. View abstract.
  • Tyler, T. F., Nicholas, S. J., Hershman, E. B., Glace, B. W., Mullaney, M. J., and McHugh, M. P. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am.J.Sports Med. 2004;32(2):383-388. View abstract.
  • Urbanski, R. L., Vincent, W. J., and Yaspelkis, B. B., III. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(2):136-145. View abstract.
  • van de Kamp, J. M., Pouwels, P. J., Aarsen, F. K., ten Hoopen, L. W., Knol, D. L., de Klerk, J. B., de Coo, I. F., Huijmans, J. G., Jakobs, C., van der Knaap, M. S., Salomons, G. S., and Mancini, G. M. Long-term follow-up and treatment in nine boys with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. 2012;35(1):141-149. View abstract.
  • van der Merwe, J., Brooks, N. E., and Myburgh, K. H. Three weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation affects dihydrotestosterone to testosterone ratio in college-aged rugby players. Clin.J.Sport Med. 2009;19(5):399-404. View abstract.
  • Van Leemputte, M., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Shortening of muscle relaxation time after creatine loading. J Appl.Physiol 1999;86(3):840-844. View abstract.
  • van Loon, L. J., Murphy, R., Oosterlaar, A. M., Cameron-Smith, D., Hargreaves, M., Wagenmakers, A. J., and Snow, R. Creatine supplementation increases glycogen storage but not GLUT-4 expression in human skeletal muscle. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106(1):99-106. View abstract.
  • Vandebuerie, F., Vanden Eynde, B., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Effect of creatine loading on endurance capacity and sprint power in cyclists. Int J Sports Med 1998;19(7):490-495. View abstract.
  • Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, and et al. Inhibition of muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis by caffeine after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(5 Supplement):249.
  • Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Neurology 10-14-2003;61(7):925-930. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven, N. M., Guerand, W. S., Struys, E. A., Bouman, A. A., van der Knaap, M. S., and Jakobs, C. Plasma creatinine assessment in creatine deficiency: A diagnostic pitfall. J Inherit.Metab Dis. 2000;23(8):835-840. View abstract.
  • Verhoeven, N. M., Salomons, G. S., and Jakobs, C. Laboratory diagnosis of defects of creatine biosynthesis and transport. Clin Chim.Acta 2005;361(1-2):1-9. View abstract.
  • Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., and Kraemer, W. J. No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(2):144-156. View abstract.
  • Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Staron, R. S., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., Pearson, D. R., Fink, W. J., and Kraemer, W. J. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 1999;31(8):1147-1156. View abstract.
  • Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K. L., and Lynch, J. M. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1997;97(7):765-770. View abstract.
  • Volek, J. S., Mazzetti, S. A., Farquhar, W. B., Barnes, B. R., GOMEZ And AL, and Kraemer, W. J. Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(7):1101-1108. View abstract.
  • Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., French, D. N., McGuigan, M. M., Scheett, T. P., Sharman, M. J., Hakkinen, K., and Kraemer, W. J. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2004;91(5-6):628-637. View abstract.
  • Vorgerd, M., Zange, J., Kley, R., Grehl, T., Husing, A., Jager, M., Muller, K., Schroder, R., Mortier, W., Fabian, K., Malin, J. P., and Luttmann, A. Effect of high-dose creatine therapy on symptoms of exercise intolerance in McArdle disease: Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Neurol 2002;59(1):97-101. View abstract.
  • Marshall LF, Camp PE, Bowers SA. Dimethyl sulfoxide for the treatment of intracranial hypertension: a preliminary trial. Neurosurg 1984;14:659-63. View abstract.
  • Merlini G. Treatment of primary amyloidosis. Semin Hematol 1995;32:60-79.
  • Neulieb RL, Neulieb MK. The diverse actions of dimtheyl sulphoxide: an indicator of membrane transport activity. Cytobios 1990;63:139-65. View abstract.
  • Prior D, Mitchell A, Nebauer M, Smith M. Oncology nurses' experience of dimethyl sulfoxide odor. Cancer Nurs 2000;23:134-40. View abstract.
  • Rand-Luby L, Pommier RF, Williams ST, et al. Improved outcome of surgical flaps treated with topical dimethylsulfoxide. Ann Surg 1996;224:583-9. View abstract.
  • Rosenstein ED. Topical agents in the treatment of rheumatic disorders. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1999;25:899-918. View abstract.
  • Rowley SD. Hematopoietic stem cell processing and cryopreservation. J Clin Apheresis 1992;7:132-4. View abstract.
  • Rubin LF. Toxicologic update of dimethyl sulfoxide. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1983;411:6-10.
  • Salim AS. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori and oxygen-derived free radicals in the mechanism of duodenal ulceration. Intern Med 1993;32:359-64. View abstract.
  • Sant GR, LaRock DR. Standard intravesical therapies for interstial cystitis. Urol Clin North Am 1994;21:73-83. View abstract.
  • Sant GR. Intravesical 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (Rimso-50) in treatment of interstitial cystitis. Urology 1987;29:17-21.
  • Shirley SW, Stewart BH, Mirelman S. Dimethyl sulfoxide in treatment of inflammatory genitourinary disorders. Urology 1978;11:215-20. View abstract.
  • Simon LS, Grierson LM, Naseer Z, et al. Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis. Pain 2009;143:238-45. View abstract.
  • Spremulli EN, Dexter DL. Polar solvents: a novel class of antineoplastic agents. J Clin Oncol 1984;2:227-41. View abstract.
  • Takacs T, Montet JC. In vitro dissolution of cholesterol biliary stones. Gut 1995;37:157-8.
  • Thiers BH. Unusual treatments for herpesvirus infections II, herpes zoster. J Am Acad Dermatol 1983;8:433-6.
  • Toren A, Rechavi G. What really cures in autologous bone marrow transplantation? A possible role for dimethylsulfoxide. Med Hypotheses 1993;41:495-8. View abstract.
  • Torres MA, Furst DE. Treatment of generalized systemic sclerosis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1990;16:217-41. View abstract.
  • Trice JM, Pinals RS. Dimethyl sulfoxide: a review of its use in the rheumatic disorders. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1985;15:45-60.
  • Wildenhoff KE, Esmann V, Ipsen J, Harving H, et al. Treatment of trigeminal and thoracic zoster with idoxuridine. Scand J Infect Dis 1981;13:257-62. View abstract.
  • Williams HJ, Furst DE, Dahl SL, et al. Double-blind, multicenter controlled trial comparing topical dimethyl sulfoxide and normal saline for treatment of hand ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1985;28:308-14. View abstract.
  • Wolf P, Simon M. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) induced serum hyperosmolality. Clin Biochem 1983;16:261-2. View abstract.
  • Zambelli A, Poggi G, Da Prada G, et al. Clinical toxicity of cryopreserved circulation progenitor cells infusion. Anticancer Res 1998;18:4705-8. View abstract.
  • Docimo, R., Montesani, L., Maturo, P., Costacurta, M., Bartolino, M., Zhang, Y. P., DeVizio, W., Delgado, E., Cummins, D., Dibart, S., and Mateo, L. R. Comparing the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of a new toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride to a benchmark commercial desensitizing toothpaste containing 2% potassium ion: an eight-week clinical study in Rome, Italy. J Clin.Dent. 2009;20(4):137-143. View abstract.
  • Doley, J. Nutrition management of pressure ulcers. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2010;25(1):50-60. View abstract.
  • Dong, J. Y., Qin, L. Q., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y., Wang, J., Arigoni, F., and Zhang, W. Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Am.Heart J 2011;162(6):959-965. View abstract.
  • Doutreleau, S., Rouyer, O., Di, Marco P., Lonsdorfer, E., Richard, R., Piquard, F., and Geny, B. L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant. Am J Clin.Nutr. 2010;91(5):1261-1267. View abstract.
  • Drover, J. W., Dhaliwal, R., Weitzel, L., Wischmeyer, P. E., Ochoa, J. B., and Heyland, D. K. Perioperative use of arginine-supplemented diets: a systematic review of the evidence. J Am.Coll.Surg. 2011;212(3):385-99, 399. View abstract.
  • Dudek, D., Legutko, J., Heba, G., Bartus, S., Partyka, L., Huk, I., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Kaluza, G. L., and Dubiel, J. S. L-arginine supplementation does not inhibit neointimal formation after coronary stenting in human beings: an intravascular ultrasound study. Am Heart J 2004;147(4):E12. View abstract.
  • Egashira, K., Hirooka, Y., Kuga, T., Mohri, M., and Takeshita, A. Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms. Circulation 7-15-1996;94(2):130-134. View abstract.
  • Elam, R. P., Hardin, D. H., Sutton, R. A., and Hagen, L. Effects of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 1989;29(1):52-56. View abstract.
  • Ellinger, S. and Stehle, P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation in situations with wound healing disorders: results from clinical intervention studies. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2009;12(6):588-595. View abstract.
  • Eshghi F. The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy. Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;7(3):481-484.
  • Facchinetti, F., Longo, M., Piccinini, F., Neri, I., and Volpe, A. L-arginine infusion reduces blood pressure in preeclamptic women through nitric oxide release. J Soc Gynecol.Investig. 1999;6(4):202-207. View abstract.
  • Facchinetti, F., Saade, G. R., Neri, I., Pizzi, C., Longo, M., and Volpe, A. L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2007;26(1):121-130. View abstract.
  • Fallon, E. M., Nehra, D., Potemkin, A. K., Gura, K. M., Simpser, E., Compher, C., and Puder, M. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support of neonatal patients at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2012;36(5):506-523. View abstract.
  • Fan, X. Y., van den Berg, A., Snoek, M., van der Flier, L. G., Smids, B., Jansen, H. M., Liu, R. Y., and Lutter, R. Arginine deficiency augments inflammatory mediator production by airway epithelial cells in vitro. Respir.Res 2009;10:62. View abstract.
  • Farreras, N., Artigas, V., Cardona, D., Rius, X., Trias, M., and Gonzalez, J. A. Effect of early postoperative enteral immunonutrition on wound healing in patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. Clin.Nutr 2005;24(1):55-65. View abstract.
  • Finco, C., Magnanini, P., Sarzo, G., Vecchiato, M., Luongo, B., Savastano, S., Bortoliero, M., Barison, P., and Merigliano, S. Prospective randomized study on perioperative enteral immunonutrition in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg.Endosc. 2007;21(7):1175-1179. View abstract.
  • Fons, C., Sempere, A., Arias, A., Lopez-Sala, A., Poo, P., Pineda, M., Mas, A., Vilaseca, M. A., Salomons, G. S., Ribes, A., Artuch, R., and Campistol, J. Arginine supplementation in four patients with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J Inherit.Metab Dis 2008;31(6):724-728. View abstract.
  • Fricke, O., Baecker, N., Heer, M., Tutlewski, B., and Schoenau, E. The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women. Clin.Physiol Funct.Imaging 2008;28(5):307-311. View abstract.
  • Furuno T, Mullen MJ Thorne SA Thomson H Donald AE Powe A et al. Intravenous L-arginine restores endothelial function in healthy young smokers (abstract). Circulation 1996;94:3052.
  • Gad, M. Z., El-Mesallamy, H. O., and Sanad, E. F. hsCRP, sICAM-1 and TAFI in hemodialysis patients: linking inflammation and hypofibrinolysis to cardiovascular events. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008;31(6):391-397. View abstract.
  • Garhofer, G., Resch, H., Lung, S., Weigert, G., and Schmetterer, L. Intravenous administration of L-arginine increases retinal and choroidal blood flow. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(1):69-76. View abstract.
  • Gaston, R. S., Schlessinger, S. D., Sanders, P. W., Barker, C. V., Curtis, J. J., and Warnock, D. G. Cyclosporine inhibits the renal response to L-arginine in human kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995;5(7):1426-1433. View abstract.
  • Gentile, V., Antonini, G., Antonella, Bertozzi M., Dinelli, N., Rizzo, C., Ashraf, Virmani M., and Koverech, A. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25(9):2223-2228. View abstract.
  • George, J., Shmuel, S. B., Roth, A., Herz, I., Izraelov, S., Deutsch, V., Keren, G., and Miller, H. L-arginine attenuates lymphocyte activation and anti-oxidized LDL antibody levels in patients undergoing angioplasty. Atherosclerosis 2004;174(2):323-327. View abstract.
  • Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Gentilini, O., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., and Di, Carlo, V. Artificial nutrition after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreas 2000;21(4):344-351. View abstract.
  • Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Nespoli, L., Radaelli, G., Beneduce, A., and Di, Carlo, V. A randomized controlled trial of preoperative oral supplementation with a specialized diet in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Gastroenterology 2002;122(7):1763-1770. View abstract.
  • Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Vignali, A., Balzano, G., Zerbi, A., Bisagni, P., and Di, Carlo, V. Effect of route of delivery and formulation of postoperative nutritional support in patients undergoing major operations for malignant neoplasms. Arch.Surg. 1997;132(11):1222-1229. View abstract.
  • Giger, U., Buchler, M., Farhadi, J., Berger, D., Husler, J., Schneider, H., Krahenbuhl, S., and Krahenbuhl, L. Preoperative immunonutrition suppresses perioperative inflammatory response in patients with major abdominal surgery-a randomized controlled pilot study. Ann.Surg.Oncol. 2007;14(10):2798-2806. View abstract.
  • Giuggioli, D., Colaci, M., Sebastiani, M., and Ferri, C. L-Arginine in pregnant scleroderma patients. Clin.Rheumatol. 2010;29(8):937-939. View abstract.
  • Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Coppola, L., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Giunta, R., Nappo, F., Lucarelli, C., and D'Onofrio, F. Vascular effects of acute hyperglycemia in humans are reversed by L-arginine. Evidence for reduced availability of nitric oxide during hyperglycemia. Circulation 4-1-1997;95(7):1783-1790. View abstract.
  • Giugliano, D., Marfella, R., Verrazzo, G., Acampora, R., Coppola, L., Cozzolino, D., and D'Onofrio, F. The vascular effects of L-Arginine in humans. The role of endogenous insulin. J Clin.Invest 2-1-1997;99(3):433-438. View abstract.
  • Glueck, C. J., Munjal, J., Khan, A., Umar, M., and Wang, P. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase T-786C mutation, a reversible etiology of Prinzmetal's angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol 3-15-2010;105(6):792-796. View abstract.
  • Goligorsky, M. S. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: from structure to function in one aspartic substitution. Kidney Int. 2009;75(3):255-257. View abstract.
  • Gosselink, M. P., Darby, M., Zimmerman, D. D., Gruss, H. J., and Schouten, W. R. Treatment of chronic anal fissure by application of L-arginine gel: a phase II study in 15 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48(4):832-837. View abstract.
  • Grasemann, H., Grasemann, C., Kurtz, F., Tietze-Schillings, G., Vester, U., and Ratjen, F. Oral L-arginine supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients: a placebo-controlled study. Eur.Respir.J 2005;25(1):62-68. View abstract.
  • Gryglewski, R. J., Grodzinska, L., Kostka-Trabka, E., Korbut, R., Bieroon, K., Goszcz, A., and Slawinski, M. Treatment with L-arginine is likely to stimulate generation of nitric oxide in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 1996;108(4):111-116. View abstract.
  • Guttman, H., Zimlichman, R., Boaz, M., Matas, Z., and Shargorodsky, M. Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 6-7-2010; View abstract.
  • Hackett, A., Gillard, J., and Wilcken, B. n of 1 trial for an ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency carrier. Mol.Genet.Metab 2008;94(2):157-161. View abstract.
  • Hayde, M., Vierhapper, H., Lubec, B., Popow, C., Weninger, M., Xi, Z., and Lubec, G. Low-dose dietary L-arginine increases plasma interleukin 1 alpha but not interleukin 1 beta in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cytokine 1994;6(1):79-82. View abstract.
  • Helminen, H., Raitanen, M., and Kellosalo, J. Immunonutrition in elective gastrointestinal surgery patients. Scand.J Surg. 2007;96(1):46-50. View abstract.
  • Herman, W. H., Fajans, S. S., Smith, M. J., Polonsky, K. S., Bell, G. I., and Halter, J. B. Diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine in nondiabetic subjects with a mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha/MODY1 gene. Diabetes 1997;46(11):1749-1754. View abstract.
  • Hertz, P. and Richardson, J. A. Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients. Arch.Intern.Med. 1972;130(5):778-780. View abstract.
  • Heyman, H., Van De Looverbosch, D. E., Meijer, E. P., and Schols, J. M. Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents. J Wound Care 2008;17(11):476-8, 480. View abstract.
  • Heys, S. D., Ogston, K., Miller, I., Hutcheon, A. W., Walker, L. G., Sarker, T. K., Dewar, J., Ah-See, A. K., and Eremin, O. Potentiation of the response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer by dietary supplementation with L-arginine: results of a randomised controlled trial. Int.J Oncol. 1998;12(1):221-225. View abstract.
  • Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ono, N., Hiraga, H., Yoshimura, M., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., Kambe, M., and Kajiyama, G. Intravenous administration of L-arginine inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme in humans. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1995;80(7):2198-2202. View abstract.
  • Higashi, Y., Oshima, T., Ozono, R., Watanabe, M., Matsuura, H., and Kajiyama, G. Effects of L-arginine infusion on renal hemodynamics in patients with mild essential hypertension. Hypertension 1995;25(4 Pt 2):898-902. View abstract.
  • Hladunewich, M. A., Derby, G. C., Lafayette, R. A., Blouch, K. L., Druzin, M. L., and Myers, B. D. Effect of L-arginine therapy on the glomerular injury of preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107(4):886-895. View abstract.
  • Houwing, R. H., Rozendaal, M., Wouters-Wesseling, W., Beulens, J. W., Buskens, E., and Haalboom, J. R. A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients. Clin.Nutr. 2003;22(4):401-405. View abstract.
  • Hrncic, D., Rasic-Markovic, A., Krstic, D., Macut, D., Djuric, D., and Stanojlovic, O. The role of nitric oxide in homocysteine thiolactone-induced seizures in adult rats. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2010;30(2):219-231. View abstract.
  • Huang, C. C., Lin, T. J., Lu, Y. F., Chen, C. C., Huang, C. Y., and Lin, W. T. Protective effects of L-arginine supplementation against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress in young rat tissues. Chin J Physiol 10-31-2009;52(5):306-315. View abstract.
  • Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S. R., and Jensen, J. Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 1998;8(5 Pt 1):247-251. View abstract.
  • Ahmun, R. P., Tong, R. J., and Grimshaw, P. N. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(1):92-97. View abstract.
  • Al-Ghimlas, F. and Todd, D. C. Creatine supplementation for patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2010;15(5):785-795. View abstract.
  • Almeida, L. S., Rosenberg, E. H., Martinez-Munoz, C., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Jakobs, C., and Salomons, G. S. Overexpression of GAMT restores GAMT activity in primary GAMT-deficient fibroblasts. Mol.Genet.Metab 2006;89(4):392-394. View abstract.
  • Almeida, L. S., Verhoeven, N. M., Roos, B., Valongo, C., Cardoso, M. L., Vilarinho, L., Salomons, G. S., and Jakobs, C. Creatine and guanidinoacetate: diagnostic markers for inborn errors in creatine biosynthesis and transport. Mol.Genet.Metab 2004;82(3):214-219. View abstract.
  • Alves, C. R., Ferreira, J. C., de Siqueira-Filho, M. A., Carvalho, C. R., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Gualano, B. Creatine-induced glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes: a role for AMPK-alpha? Amino.Acids 2012;43(4):1803-1807. View abstract.
  • Andreev NA, Andreeva TN, and Bichkov IV. Effect of phosphocreatine in congestive heart failure. Current Therapeutic Research 1992;51(5):649-660.
  • Anomasiri, W., Sanguanrungsirikul, S., and Saichandee, P. Low dose creatine supplementation enhances sprint phase of 400 meters swimming performance. J Med Assoc Thai 2004;87 Suppl 2:S228-S232. View abstract.
  • Ara, G., Gravelin, L. M., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., and Teicher, B. A. Antitumor activity of creatine analogs produced by alterations in pancreatic hormones and glucose metabolism. In Vivo 1998;12(2):223-231. View abstract.
  • Arciero, P. J., Hannibal, N. S., III, Nindl, B. C., Gentile, C. L., Hamed, J., and Vukovich, M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism 2001;50(12):1429-1434. View abstract.
  • Armstrong, M. J. and Miyasaki, J. M. Evidence-based guideline: pharmacologic treatment of chorea in Huntington disease: report of the guideline development subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 8-7-2012;79(6):597-603. View abstract.
  • Astorino, T. A., Marrocco, A. C., Gross, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Brazil, C. M., Icenhower, M. E., and Kneessi, R. J. Is running performance enhanced with creatine serum ingestion? J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(4):730-734. View abstract.
  • Atassi, N., Ratai, E. M., Greenblatt, D. J., Pulley, D., Zhao, Y., Bombardier, J., Wallace, S., Eckenrode, J., Cudkowicz, M., and Dibernardo, A. A phase I, pharmacokinetic, dosage escalation study of creatine monohydrate in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2010;11(6):508-513. View abstract.
  • Ayoama, R., Hiruma, E., and Sasaki, H. Effects of creatine loading on muscular strength and endurance of female softball players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43(4):481-487. View abstract.
  • Baldinger, R., Katzberg, H. D., and Weber, M. Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD004157. View abstract.
  • Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, and et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent excercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1993;3:143-149.
  • Banerjee, B., Sharma, U., Balasubramanian, K., Kalaivani, M., Kalra, V., and Jagannathan, N. R. Effect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS study. Magn Reson.Imaging 2010;28(5):698-707. View abstract.
  • Bassit, R. A., Curi, R., and Costa Rosa, L. F. Creatine supplementation reduces plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 after a half-ironman competition. Amino.Acids 2008;35(2):425-431. View abstract.
  • Battini, R., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Tosetti, M., Bianchi, M. C., Item, C. B., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and Cioni, G. Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree. Mol.Genet.Metab 2002;77(4):326-331. View abstract.
  • Bazzucchi, I., Felici, F., and Sacchetti, M. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on neuromuscular function. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2009;41(10):1934-1941. View abstract.
  • Bellinger, B. M., Bold, A., Wilson, G. R., Noakes, T. D., and Myburgh, K. H. Oral creatine supplementation decreases plasma markers of adenine nucleotide degradation during a 1-h cycle test. Acta Physiol Scand. 2000;170(3):217-224. View abstract.
  • Bemben MG, Witten MS Carter JM Eliot KA Knehans AW Bemben DA. The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(2):155-159. View abstract.
  • Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., Loftiss, D. D., and Knehans, A. W. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(10):1667-1673. View abstract.
  • Bemben, M. G., Tuttle, T. D., Bemben, D. A., and Knehans, A. W. Effects of creatine supplementation on isometric force-time curve characteristics. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1876-1881. View abstract.
  • Benatar, M., Kurent, J., and Moore, D. H. Treatment for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD006153. View abstract.
  • Bender, A., Auer, D. P., Merl, T., Reilmann, R., Saemann, P., Yassouridis, A., Bender, J., Weindl, A., Dose, M., Gasser, T., and Klopstock, T. Creatine supplementation lowers brain glutamate levels in Huntington's disease. J Neurol 2005;252(1):36-41. View abstract.
  • Bender, A., Samtleben, W., Elstner, M., and Klopstock, T. Long-term creatine supplementation is safe in aged patients with Parkinson disease. Nutr.Res. 2008;28(3):172-178. View abstract.
  • Bennett, T., Bathalon, G., Armstrong, D., III, Martin, B., Coll, R., Beck, R., Barkdull, T., O'Brien, K., and Deuster, P. A. Effect of creatine on performance of militarily relevant tasks and soldier health. Mil.Med 2001;166(11):996-1002. View abstract.
  • Bird, L. M., Tan, W. H., Bacino, C. A., Peters, S. U., Skinner, S. A., Anselm, I., Barbieri-Welge, R., Bauer-Carlin, A., Gentile, J. K., Glaze, D. G., Horowitz, L. T., Mohan, K. N., Nespeca, M. P., Sahoo, T., Sarco, D., Waisbren, S. E., and Beaudet, A. L. A therapeutic trial of pro-methylation dietary supplements in Angelman syndrome. Am J Med Genet.A 2011;155A(12):2956-2963. View abstract.
  • Biwer, C. J., Jensen, R. L., Schmidt, W. D., and Watts, P. B. The effect of creatine on treadmill running with high-intensity intervals. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):439-445. View abstract.
  • Bodamer, O. A., Bloesch, S. M., Gregg, A. R., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and O'Brien, W. E. Analysis of guanidinoacetate and creatine by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chim.Acta 2001;308(1-2):173-178. View abstract.
  • Bohnhorst, B., Geuting, T., Peter, C. S., Dordelmann, M., Wilken, B., and Poets, C. F. Randomized, controlled trial of oral creatine supplementation (not effective) for apnea of prematurity. Pediatrics 2004;113(4):e303-e307. View abstract.
  • Boos, C. J., White, S. H., Bland, S. A., and McAllister, P. D. Dietary supplements and military operations: caution is advised. J R.Army Med Corps 2010;156(1):41-43. View abstract.
  • Bosboom, W., Vrancken, A. F., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., and Iannaccone, S. T. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(1):CD006282. View abstract.
  • Branch, J. D., Schwarz, W. D., and Van, Lunen B. Effect of creatine supplementation on cycle ergometer exercise in a hyperthermic environment. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2007;21(1):57-61. View abstract.
  • Brose, A., Parise, G., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol.Sci.Med Sci. 2003;58(1):11-19. View abstract.
  • Burke LM, Pyne DB, and Telford RD. Oral creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:S146.
  • Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Davidson, K. S., Candow, D. G., Farthing, J., and Smith-Palmer, T. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2001;11(3):349-364. View abstract.
  • Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Parise, G., Candow, D. G., Mahoney, D., and Tarnopolsky, M. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35(11):1946-1955. View abstract.
  • Burke, D. G., Silver, S., Holt, L. E., Smith, Palmer T., Culligan, C. J., and Chilibeck, P. D. The effect of continuous low dose creatine supplementation on force, power, and total work. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(3):235-244. View abstract.
  • Burke, L. M., Pyne, D. B., and Telford, R. D. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6(3):222-233. View abstract.
  • Cafiero, M., Strumia, E., Pirone, S., Pacileo, S., and Santoro, R. [The efficacy of creatine phosphate in the treatment of patients with heart failure. Its echographic evaluation after acute and protracted treatment]. Clin Ter. 1994;144(4):321-328. View abstract.
  • Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Zuniga, J. M., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on muscular strength and power. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2010;24(12):3343-3351. View abstract.
  • Camilova UK, Katsenovich RA, and Kostco SZ. Combined use of phosphocreatine and nifedipine for treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Current Therapeutic Research 1991;50(5):591-298.
  • Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., and Lewis, J. D. Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2011;25(7):1831-1838. View abstract.
  • Candow, D. G., Little, J. P., Chilibeck, P. D., Abeysekara, S., Zello, G. A., Kazachkov, M., Cornish, S. M., and Yu, P. H. Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40(9):1645-1652. View abstract.
  • Carducci, C., Birarelli, M., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Battini, R., Cioni, G., and Antonozzi, I. Guanidinoacetate and creatine plus creatinine assessment in physiologic fluids: an effective diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencies. Clin Chem 2002;48(10):1772-1778. View abstract.
  • Carducci, C., Santagata, S., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Artiola, C., Giovanniello, T., Battini, R., and Antonozzi, I. Quantitative determination of guanidinoacetate and creatine in dried blood spot by flow injection analysis-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Clin Chim.Acta 2006;364(1-2):180-187. View abstract.
  • Carter, J. M., Bemben, D. A., Knehans, A. W., Bemben, M. G., and Witten, M. S. Does nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 years. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28(2):40-47. View abstract.
  • Cerny, J., Nemec, P., Bucek, J., Cerny, E., Papousek, F., and Lojek, A. [The effect of creatine phosphate in patients after surgery in ischemic heart disease]. Vnitr.Lek. 1993;39(2):153-159. View abstract.
  • Chambers, D. J., Braimbridge, M. V., Kosker, S., Yamada, M., Jupp, R. A., and Crowther, A. Creatine phosphate (Neoton) as an additive to St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution (Plegisol). Results of a clinical study. Eur J Cardiothorac.Surg 1991;5(2):74-81. View abstract.
  • Chang, C. T., Wu, C. H., Yang, C. W., Huang, J. Y., and Wu, M. S. Creatine monohydrate treatment alleviates muscle cramps associated with haemodialysis. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2002;17(11):1978-1981. View abstract.
  • Cheillan, D., Cognat, S., Vandenberghe, N., Des, Portes, V, and Vianey-Saban, C. [Creatine deficiency syndromes]. Rev Neurol.(Paris) 2005;161(3):284-289. View abstract.
  • Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Ullrich, I. H., and Yeater, R. A. Resistance training exercise and creatine in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2004;30(1):69-76. View abstract.
  • Chilibeck, P. D., Chrusch, M. J., Chad, K. E., Shawn, Davison K., and Burke, D. G. Creatine monohydrate and resistance training increase bone mineral content and density in older men. J Nutr Health Aging 2005;9(5):352-353. View abstract.
  • Chilibeck, P. D., Stride, D., Farthing, J. P., and Burke, D. G. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36(10):1781-1788. View abstract.
  • Chrusch, M. J., Chilibeck, P. D., Chad, K. E., Davison, K. S., and Burke, D. G. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(12):2111-2117. View abstract.
  • Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13(2):173-183. View abstract.
  • Coco, M. and Perciavalle, V. Creatine ingestion effects on oxidative stress in a steady-state test at 75% VO(2max). J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2012;52(2):165-169. View abstract.
  • Cornelissen, V. A., Defoor, J. G., Stevens, A., Schepers, D., Hespel, P., Decramer, M., Mortelmans, L., Dobbels, F., Vanhaecke, J., Fagard, R. H., and Vanhees, L. Effect of creatine supplementation as a potential adjuvant therapy to exercise training in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial. Clin.Rehabil. 2010;24(11):988-999. View abstract.
  • Cornish, S. M., Candow, D. G., Jantz, N. T., Chilibeck, P. D., Little, J. P., Forbes, S., Abeysekara, S., and Zello, G. A. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19(1):79-96. View abstract.
  • Cottrell, G. T., Coast, J. R., and Herb, R. A. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16(1):109-116. View abstract.
  • Cox, G., Mujika, I., Tumilty, D., and Burke, L. Acute creatine supplementation and performance during a field test simulating match play in elite female soccer players. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2002;12(1):33-46. View abstract.
  • Cramer, J. T., Stout, J. R., Culbertson, J. Y., and Egan, A. D. Effects of creatine supplementation and three days of resistance training on muscle strength, power output, and neuromuscular function. J Strength.Cond.Res 2007;21(3):668-677. View abstract.
  • Crim, M. C., Calloway, D. H., and Margen, S. Creatine metabolism in men: urinary creatine and creatinine excretions with creatine feeding. J Nutr. 1975;105(4):428-438. View abstract.
  • Deacon, S. J., Vincent, E. E., Greenhaff, P. L., Fox, J., Steiner, M. C., Singh, S. J., and Morgan, M. D. Randomized controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 8-1-2008;178(3):233-239. View abstract.
  • Delanghe, J., De Slypere, J. P., De Buyzere, M., Robbrecht, J., Wieme, R., and Vermeulen, A. Normal reference values for creatine, creatinine, and carnitine are lower in vegetarians. Clin Chem. 1989;35(8):1802-1803. View abstract.
  • Deldicque, L., Louis, M., Theisen, D., Nielens, H., Dehoux, M., Thissen, J. P., Rennie, M. J., and Francaux, M. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(5):731-736. View abstract.
  • Delecluse, C., Diels, R., and Goris, M. Effect of creatine supplementation on intermittent sprint running performance in highly trained athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17(3):446-454. View abstract.
  • Derave, W., Eijnde, B. O., Verbessem, P., Ramaekers, M., Van Leemputte, M., Richter, E. A., and Hespel, P. Combined creatine and protein supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J Appl.Physiol 2003;94(5):1910-1916. View abstract.
  • Deutekom, M., Beltman, J. G., de Ruiter, C. J., de Koning, J. J., and de Haan, A. No acute effects of short-term creatine supplementation on muscle properties and sprint performance. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82(3):223-229. View abstract.
  • Doherty, T. J., Lougheed, K., Markez, J., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate does not increase strength in patients with hereditary neuropathy. Neurology 8-14-2001;57(3):559-560. View abstract.
  • Drory, V. E. and Gross, D. No effect of creatine on respiratory distress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler.Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2002;3(1):43-46. View abstract.
  • Easton, C., Calder, A., Prior, F., Dobinson, S., I'Anson, R., MacGregor, R., Mohammad, Y., Kingsmore, D., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. The effects of a novel "fluid loading" strategy on cardiovascular and haematological responses to orthostatic stress. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2009;105(6):899-908. View abstract.
  • Easton, C., Turner, S., and Pitsiladis, Y. P. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2007;17(1):70-91. View abstract.
  • Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Iwan, K. A., Gebauer, A. N., and Ginsberg, R. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19(4):756-763. View abstract.
  • Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Nishimura, K., and Tamura, K. Effect of two and five days of creatine loading on anaerobic working capacity in women. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2004;18(1):168-173. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased CREATINE?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

More Resources for CREATINE

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.