Hu SS, et al. (2006). Disorders, diseases, and injuries of the spine. In HB Skinner, ed., Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Orthopedics, 4th ed., pp. 221–297. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Furlan AD, et al. (2008). Massage for low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4).
Furlan AD, et al. (2005). Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1).
Hsieh LL, et al. (2006). Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 333(7543): 696–700.
Tilbrook HE, et al. (2011). Yoga for chronic low back pain: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 155(9): 569–578.
Sherman KJ, et al. (2011). A randomized trial comparing yoga, stretching, and a self-care book for chronic low back pain. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(22): 2019–2026.
Chou R (2010). Low back pain (chronic), search date April 2009. Online version of BMJ Clinical Evidence: http://www.clinicalevidence.com.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2010). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Back Pain II (Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 194). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Also available online: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/backpaincam/backcam2.pdf.
American Geriatrics Society Panel on Pharmacological Management of Persistent Pain in Older Persons (2009). Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(8): 1331–1346.
Carragee EJ (2005). Persistent low back pain. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(18): 1891–1898.
Carragee EJ, Hannibal M (2004). Diagnostic evaluation of low back pain. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 35(2004): 7–16.
Chaiamnuay S, et al. (2006). Risks versus benefits of cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 63(19): 1837–1851.
Chou R, et al. (2009). Imaging strategies for low-back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet, 373(9662): 463–472.
Chou R, et al. (2009). Interventional therapies, surgery and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: An evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. Spine, 34(10): 1066–1077.
Chou R, et al. (2011). Diagnostic imaging for low back pain: Advice for high-value health care from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine, 154(3): 181–189.
Deshpande A, et al. (2007). Opioids for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3).
Deyo RA, et al. (2004). Spinal-fusion surgery—The case for restraint. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(7): 722–726.
Garra G, et al. (2010). Heat or cold packs for neck and back strain: A randomized controlled trial of efficacy. Academic Emergency Medicine, 17(5): 484–489.
Hu SS, et al. (2006). Spondylolisthesis and spondylolysis section of Disorders, diseases, and injuries of the spine. In HB Skinner, ed., Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Orthopedics, 4th ed., pp. 271–277. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kanayama M, et al. (2007). A minimum 10-year follow-up of posterior dynamic stabilization using Graf artificial ligament. Spine, 32(18): 1992–1996.
Kovacs FM, et al. (2003). Effect of firmness of mattress on chronic non-specific low-back pain: Randomised, double-blind, controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet, 362(9396): 1599–1604.
Mercier LR (2008). The back. In Practical Orthopedics, 6th ed., pp. 143–184. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.
Modic MT, et al. (2005). Acute low back pain and radiculopathy: MR Imaging findings and their prognostic role and effect on outcome. Radiology, 237(2): 599–604.
Roelofs PDDM, et al. (2008). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1).
Thorson DC, et al. (2010). Health Care Guideline: Adult Low Back Pain, 14th ed., pp. 1–74. Bloomington, MN: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2004). Primary Care Interventions to Prevent Low Back Pain in Adults: Recommendation Statement. Available online: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsback.htm.
Urquhart DM, et al. (2008). Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1).