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    Pacemakers -- for Anxiety

    Anxiety -- the Nerve

    Reason for Hope continued...

    A new study will compare VNS to other treatments for depression, and to no treatment. In the meantime, its apparent success with depression whets his appetite for trying the therapy with other mood disorders, including anxiety.

    George says he believes there is even more reason to believe that VNS will be successful in treating anxiety because of the critical interaction between physical responses in the body -- for instance, heart rate and muscle spasms -- and the experience of fear or panic in the brain. That entire interaction occurs through the vagus nerve.

    "It makes a lot of sense that you could change that interaction by manipulating the information through stimulation of the vagus," George says.

    Because VNS requires surgical implantation, it is far more invasive than other electrical stimulation techniques, such as ECT or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which don't require cutting the body. And it is not cheap: The device and surgery cost approximately $20,000.

    Other psychiatrists are intrigued by the success of VNS in depression, but say its practical use as a treatment remains to be seen. Richard Weiner, MD, leads the American Psychiatric Association's Committee on Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    "It's an invasive technique," Weiner tells WebMD. "You need to have some justification for using it. It's never going to be something people run to do first. The issue is, once you have gone through a trial of medications, at what point do you use this?"

    For Gray Scott, participating in George's study was a chance to try a cutting-edge treatment that could prove a permanent solution to the anxiety plaguing her for nearly a decade. If it doesn't work, Scott says she will have the device removed. If it does, she will leave it in indefinitely.

    "It's a lot to undergo," she says. "But for people who are becoming desperate because they are not significantly relieved by medication, it's good to know you can actively try something instead of sitting around waiting."

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