The Science of Good Deeds
The 'helper's high' could help you live a longer, healthier life.
The Evolution of Kindness
"Humans have evolved to be caring and helpful to those around us, largely to ensure our survival," says Post. "In Darwin's Descent of Man, he mentions survival of the fittest only twice. He mentions benevolence 99 times."
Humans are mammals, and like other mammals we are social animals. As we evolved, our social bonds helped ensure our survival, explains Harvard psychiatry associate professor Gregory L. Fricchione, MD. Fricchione is working on a book about brain evolution and the development of human altruism.
"If it is evolutionarily beneficial for human beings to benefit from social support, you would expect that evolution would provide the species with the capacity to provide social support," he tells WebMD. "This is where the human capacity for altruism may come from."
The Impact of Genetics and Environment
An interplay of our genetics and our environment - especially in our early years - will play into whether we develop into altruistic individuals. "It's a bit like the traits of shyness and extroversion; people are found at all parts of the spectrum. You would expect that some people would have the capacity to be more altruistic than others -- and some preliminary findings that suggest how this capacity may emerge," says Fricchione, who is also associate chief of psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
He's referring to a small study published recently, which looked at oxytocin levels in children's urine while they interacted with their parents. One group was composed of orphans who had spent the first 16 months of life in overseas orphanages - neglected before being adopted by U.S. families. The other group of kids had been raised in stable, caring homes during their earliest years.
The adopted orphans had produced lower levels of urinary oxytocin after being with their mothers, compared with children raised in nurturing homes since birth. "This may be a clue to a 'window of opportunity' in children's development, that those who grow up to be empathic, caring, and more altruistic in later life were nurtured more in their earlier years," Fricchione says. "That nurturing may help develop the altruistic capacity."
Future research might focus on whether the experience of being well cared for in early childhood could enhance the development of so-called "mirror neurons" that enable us to have empathic responses to the emotional states we witness in others, he says.