Aug. 20, 2009 -- After a rough day at the office or a nasty interchange with
a rude store clerk, a great joke can often quickly lift us out of a bad
Now, Dutch researchers think they've verified why this is so and how a joke
helps us -- most of the time - laugh it off and turn our negative mood
It's not as obvious as you might think, says Madelijn Strick, PhD, a
postdoctoral researcher at Radboud University in Nijmegen, Netherlands, and the
lead author of the study, published in the journal Emotion.
"Most researchers would argue that humor counters negative emotions because
of the positive emotions it elicits," she tells WebMD in an email
"Indeed, there is ample evidence that positive emotions in general can
counteract negative emotions," she says. "However, this explanation does not
make humor 'special.' It does not explain why humor would be more effective in
this respect than non-humorous positive emotions such as joy, happiness, and
So Strick's team set out to figure out exactly how a joke can lift bad
Not to spoil the punch line, but the researchers found a joke works not just
because the humor distracts us from negative emotions but because of the
cognitive work we need to do to "get" the joke.
Strick's team had this hypothesis: Humorous stimuli (such as jokes or
cartoons) would relieve negative emotions more than equally positive, but not
So they asked 90 students, average age 21.5, to participate. The "cover
story" was that the experiment was about how emotional experiences affect one's
perception of color.
The researchers showed the men and women neutral, mildly negative, and
strongly negative pictures during the study, followed by either a humorous or a
positive, non-humorous stimulus. The negative pictures depicted such scenes as
assault, car crashes, and drug
addicts, and the positive ones had, for instance, a young father holding his newborn. Neutral pictures showed traffic scenes,
neutral faces, or geometric shapes.
After viewing the pictures, the participants were asked to report their
feelings. They were asked about how much they liked specific colors, too.
Humor and Mood: Study Results
When the men and women saw mildly and strongly negative pictures, then got
the humorous stimuli, they had less negative feelings than when they were
exposed to the negative pictures and then the non-funny positive stimuli. The
stimuli that posed greater cognitive demands -- that is, people had to work
harder to get the joke -- were more effective at lifting bad moods than those
that were less demanding.
When they saw neutral pictures, humor had the same mood-lifting effect as
non-humor, Strick says.
That suggests, she says, that "humor may attenuate negative emotions as a
result of cognitive distraction." What sets humor, or at least a joke,
apart from other positive emotions, she says, is that it includes an
"incongruity" that must be resolved to get the joke. That is, the typical joke
"set up" motivates listeners to make a prediction about the outcome, but a good
punch line violates the expectations. The listener has to resolve the
incongruity to make sense of the punch line.