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Antipsychotic Medication for Bipolar Disorder

Antipsychotic medications are used in those with bipolar disorder as a short-term treatment to control psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions or mania symptoms. Some also treat bipolar depression, and several have been demonstrated long-term value to prevent future episodes of mania or depression. These symptoms may occur during acute mania or severe depression.

In people with bipolar disorder, antipsychotics are also used "off label" as sedatives, for insomnia, for anxiety, and/or for agitation. Often, they are taken with a mood-stabilizing drug and can decrease symptoms of mania until mood stabilizers take full effect. Some antipsychotic drugs may also help lessen bipolar depression.

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Some of the newer antipsychotics seem to help stabilize moods on their own. As a result, they may be used alone as long-term treatment for people who don't tolerate or respond to lithium and anticonvulsants.

Antipsychotic drugs help balance certain brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. It is not clear exactly how these drugs work, but they usually improve manic episodes quickly.

The newer antipsychotics usually act quickly and can help you avoid the reckless and impulsive behaviors associated with mania. More normal thinking often is restored within a few weeks.

Antipsychotics used to treat bipolar disorder include: 

 

Side Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs

Certain antipsychotic drugs cause rapid weight gain and high cholesterol levels, and they may increase the risk of diabetes. People considering an antipsychotic for bipolar disorder should first be screened for their risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, according to a study published in Diabetes Care

Common side effects of antipsychotic medications include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Dry mouth
  • Drowsiness
  • Muscle spasms or tremors
  • Weight gain

Note: Clozaril is not used often, despite its effectiveness for bipolar disorder. The drug can cause a rare, potentially fatal side effect affecting the blood that requires weekly or biweekly blood test monitoring.

Older antipsychotic drugs are also generally not used to treat bipolar disorder, although they are less well-established for treating depressive symptoms or preventing episodes during long-term use. However, they may be helpful if a person has troublesome side effects or doesn't respond to the newer drugs. Older antipsychotics include Thorazine (chlorpromazine), Haldol (haloperidol), and Trilafon (perphenazine). These drugs may cause a serious long-term side effect called tardive dyskinesia, a movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movement like lip smacking, protruding the tongue, or grimacing. Newer atypical antipsychotics also have the potential to cause this side effect, but are thought to have a relatively lower risk than the older conventional antipsychotics.

 

WebMD Medical Reference

Reviewed by Joseph Goldberg, MD on June 26, 2013

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