The exact causes of bipolar disorder are unknown. While genes and life stress may contribute to it, experts believe that symptoms may arise from a problem with nerve circuits and areas in the brain that control emotion, thinking, and behavior.
The best treatment for bipolar disorder is often a combination of medication and counseling. Other treatments such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are often successful for people with very severe symptoms who don't respond to traditional therapy or who can't take the medications.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depressive illness, is a serious, double-edged mental illness. In contrast to the sustained bleakness of major depression (technically called unipolar disorder when episodes only involve major depression and no manic or hypomanic periods), bipolar disorder is characterized by cyclical periods of high energy and elation and then low energy and despair. The pattern of the mood alternations varies widely among those with the disorder. In some people, years of...
Doctors sometimes treat the maniasymptoms of bipolar disorder with one set of drugs and the depression symptoms with another, although some mood-stabilizing drugs are effective at treating both kinds of symptoms. Certain drugs are also used for "maintenance" to maintain a steady mood. Antidepressants are usually not used alone because they sometimes cause manic attacks in depressed patients, and they may be less effective for treating bipolar than unipolar depression.
Many people respond well to medications for bipolar disorder. For many others, the symptoms do not completely disappear despite therapy. The mood symptoms may become less intense and more manageable, however.
Remember, getting your diagnosis should come as a relief. Now you know what the problem has been and you're on the road to getting the right treatment.
Mania in Bipolar Disorder
If you are suffering from bipolar mania, your doctor at first may treat you with an anti-manic mood stabilizer and sometimes also an antipsychotic drug and/or a benzodiazepine to quickly control hyperactivity, sleeplessness, hostility, and irritability.
Treating bipolar mania often requires hospitalization because there is high risk for unpredictable, reckless behavior and noncompliance with treatment. For people with extreme mania, pregnant women with mania, or those people whose mania can't be controlled with mood stabilizers, doctors sometimes also recommend electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).