Bipolar disorder and ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, are two conditions that are increasingly being diagnosed in American children and teens, often together. And interestingly, in children and teens, there are some similarities in the symptoms of the two conditions. But how can a doctor know for sure if the child has bipolar disorder or ADHD? Also, how does the treatment for these two conditions differ?
Medical science is learning more about bipolar disorder in children and teens. But the condition is still difficult to diagnose. That's especially true for teenagers in whom irritability and moodiness commonly co-exist as part of a normal adolescence. A preteen or teenager with mood swings may be going through a difficult but normal developmental stage. Or he or she may be suffering from bipolar disorder with periodic mood changes that shift from depression to mania.
Treatment of ADHD helps control the ADHD symptoms, including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Consistent ADHD treatment can improve the ability of the person with ADHD to function better in school, at work, and in social situations.
Treatment for ADHD is multifaceted. It consists of ADHD medications or behavioral modification therapy or both. ADHD treatment should be tailored to meet the unique needs of the child or adult who has ADHD as well as the needs of the family.
In addition, symptoms of ADHD often mimic symptoms of bipolar disorder. With ADHD, a child or teen may have rapid or impulsive speech, physical restlessness, trouble focusing, irritability, and, sometimes, defiant or oppositional behavior. Children or teens with bipolar disorder often have similar behaviors.
According to one study, today's children and teens are 40 times more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder than they were 10 years ago. The reason isn't entirely clear. The higher rate of diagnosis could be the result of more awareness on the part of health professionals. There are those, though, who say it could be a result of a lack of parenting that leads to behaviors that are tagged as mental illness.
Some studies have shown that children and teens diagnosed with bipolar disorder are more likely than adults to also be diagnosed with ADHD.
What is childhood bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder is a persistent and difficult mental illness. When it occurs in childhood or adolescence, it can completely disrupt the life of the family. Bipolar disorder that's undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, or poorly treated is associated with:
Increased rates of suicide attempts and completions
Poorer academic performance
Increased rates of substance abuse
In adults, bipolar disorder is marked by mood changes that go from depression to mania. Adult mania is characterized by decreased need for sleep, rapid speech, euphoria, grandiosity, irritability, racing thoughts, and frenetic activity. The definition of mania is not so clear for bipolar disorder in childhood. Some experts say that being irritable, cranky, and negative may be the only signs of mania in children with bipolar disorder. And other experts argue that childhood bipolar disorder may not even be the same disease as adult bipolar disorder.
What is clear, though, is that bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children -- including children of preschool age.
What are the warning signs of bipolar disorder in children and teens?
With bipolar disorder, there are both manic symptoms and depressive symptoms. If your child or teenager has five or more symptoms that persist for at least a week, it is important to seek professional help. With medications and/or psychotherapy, mental health professionals can help stabilize your child's moods. Treatment can also diminish or eliminate the depressed or manic thoughts and behaviors.