Abdominoperineal resection: usually performed for a lower rectal or anal cancer. Involves the surgical removal of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon, along with associated lymph nodes, resulting in the need for a permanent colostomy.
Accidental Bowel Leakage: also called fecal incontinence. The inability to retain stool, resulting in bowel accidents.
Beginning at the age of 50, everyone should be screened regularly for colorectal cancer (earlier screening is recommended for some high-risk groups). There are several options.
The traditional screening routine was for the doctor to perform a digital rectal exam once a year and for you to collect three stool samples to be tested for traces of blood. Also, every three to five years you would receive a sigmoidoscopy and a double-contrast barium enema to look at the lower part of the bowel. If anything...
Anemia: a condition in which a person has a low red blood cell count. It occurs when there is not enough hemoglobin in a person's blood. Hemoglobin is the substance in the red blood cells that enables the blood to transport oxygen throughout the body.
Antibodies: proteins produced by the body to protect itself from foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses.
Antigens: substances that provoke an immune response in the body. The body produces antibodies to fight antigens, or harmful substances, to try to eliminate them.
Anti-inflammatory: medication used to reduce pain, swelling, or other irritation caused by inflammation.
Air contrast barium enema: also called double contrast barium enema -- an X-ray examination of the entire large intestine (colon) and rectum in which barium and air are introduced gradually into the colon by a rectal tube.
Anal fissure: a split or crack in the lining of the anal opening, usually caused by the passage of very hard or watery stools.
Anastomosis: a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other.