Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of anal cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Reviewers and Updates
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial...
In Stage 0 rectal cancer, the tumor is located only on the inner lining of the rectum. To treat this early stage cancer, surgery can be performed to remove the tumor or a small section of the rectum where the cancer is located can be removed. Radiation treatment, given either externally (beamed in from the outside) or internally (radioactive beads are placed inside the rectum) may be considered.
Stage I Rectal Cancer
Stage I rectal cancer is another early form or limited form of cancer. The tumor has broken through the inner lining of the rectum but has not made it past the muscular wall. Treatment usually involves:
If the tumor is small or you are very old or sick, radiation alone can be used to treat the tumor. This hasn't proven to be as effective as surgery. Chemotherapy can also be added to heighten the effect of radiation.
Stage II Rectal Cancer
Stage II rectal cancer is a little more advanced. The tumor has penetrated all the way through the bowel wall and may have invaded other organs, like the bladder, uterus, or prostate gland. However, lymph nodes are not involved at this stage. Treatment includes:
Surgery to remove all the organs involved with the cancer (wide-resection)
Radiation with chemotherapy is given before surgery, or after surgery; chemotherapy alone is given for 4 months after surgery.
Stage III Rectal Cancer
In Stage III rectal cancer, the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes (small structures that are found throughout the body that produce and store cells that fight infection). Treatment includes:
Surgery to remove the tumor
Radiation with chemotherapy before or after surgery
Chemotherapy, if elected, after surgery
Stage IV Rectal Cancer
In Stage IV rectal cancer, the tumor has spread to distant parts of the body (metastasized), often to the liver and lung. The tumor can be any size and sometimes is not that large.