Upper Gastrointestinal (UGI) Series
An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series looks at the upper and middle sections of the gastrointestinal tract . The test uses barium contrast material, fluoroscopy, and X-ray. Before the test, you drink a mix of barium (barium contrast material) and water. The barium is often combined with gas-making crystals. Your doctor watches the movement of the barium through your esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum ) on a video screen. Several X-ray pictures are taken at different times and from different views.
A small bowel follow-through may be done immediately after a UGI to look at the rest of the small intestine. If just the throat and esophagus are looked at, it is called an esophagram (or barium swallow) .
Upper endoscopy is done instead of a UGI in certain cases. Endoscopy uses a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) to look at the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).
Why It Is Done
An upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is done to:
- Find the cause of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as trouble swallowing, vomiting, burping up food, belly pain (including a burning or gnawing pain in the center of the stomach), or indigestion.
- Find narrow spots (strictures) in the upper intestinal tract, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or pyloric stenosis.
- Find inflamed areas of the intestine, malabsorption syndrome, or problems with the squeezing motion that moves food through the intestines (motility disorders).
- Find swallowed objects.
Generally, a UGI series is not used if you do not have symptoms of a gastrointestinal problem. A UGI series is done most often for people who have:
- A hard time swallowing.
- A possible blocked intestine (obstruction).
- Belly pain that is relieved or gets worse while eating.
- Severe heartburn or heartburn that occurs often.
How To Prepare
Tell your doctor if you:
- Are taking any medicine.
- Are allergic to any medicines, barium, or any other X-ray contrast material.
- Are or might be pregnant. This test is not done during pregnancy because of the risk of radiation to the developing baby (fetus).
You may be asked to eat a low-fiber diet for 2 or 3 days before the test. You may also be asked to stop eating for 12 hours before the test. Your doctor will tell you if you need to stop taking certain medicines before the test.