Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that mainly affects the skin, mouth, and lymph nodes -- infection-fighting glands -- but can also affect other organs such as the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. KS was once rare, only affecting older men of Eastern European or Mediterranean background, young African men, or people who had organ transplants. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection has now become the most common cause of Kaposi's sarcoma.
Due to weakened immune systems, people with HIV are more likely to develop certain cancers. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a later stage of HIV infection where most severe cases of KS occur. Surprisingly, though, KS of the skin can also occur earlier in infection. It is a sign the immune system is being suppressed. The good news is that anti-HIV drugs have caused an 80% to 90% drop in the rate of KS cases since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. Also treating the virus itself is the best way to treat KS, especially early on.
Researchers have discovered that Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by a herpes virus, called Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8). Affecting eight times more men than women, Kaposi's sarcoma may spread through sexual contact. However, this is not known for certain. Keeping your immune system strong with antiretroviral therapy (called HAART) is the best-known way to prevent Kaposi's sarcoma.
Kaposi's sarcoma creates tumors below skin surfaces and in membranes of the mouth, nose, anus, or eyes. It can spread to the lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, or lymph nodes. This involves a process called angiogenesis, where tiny new blood vessels form.
Symptoms of Kaposi's Sarcoma
The most visible signs of Kaposi's sarcoma are lesions on the skin, which are not life threatening.
These are flat and painless, aren't itchy, and don't drain.
They appear as red or purple spots on white skin and bluish, brownish, or black on dark skin.
They may grow into raised bumps or grow together. Unlike bruises, they don't turn white when you press on them.
In some people, these growths change slowly. In others, new spots may show up each week.
If KS spreads elsewhere, it can cause other symptoms and can be life threatening. These are symptoms that may develop:
Severe swelling in your arms, legs, face, or scrotum
Serious coughing or shortness of breath
Diagnosing Kaposi's Sarcoma
All it may take to diagnose Kaposi's sarcoma is looking at the skin. Your doctor may remove a sample of tissue from a spot and examine it under a microscope. Called a biopsy, this can confirm the diagnosis. If you have respiratory symptoms, your doctor may use bronchoscopy to view your breathing passages through a lighted tube. Or, if you have gastrointestinal symptoms, your doctor may use endoscopy to view your gastrointestinal system through a lighted tube.