Proctocolectomy and Ileostomy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
In proctocolectomy, the
large intestine and rectum are removed, leaving the lower end of the small
intestine (the ileum). The doctor sews the anus closed and makes a small
opening called a stoma in the skin of the lower abdomen. The surgical procedure
to create the stoma (or any other artificial opening) is called an
The ileum is connected to the stoma, creating an opening
to the outside of the body. The surgery that creates the opening to the
intestine is called an ileostomy.
Although there are many theories about what causes Crohn's disease, none of them have been proven. So exactly what causes it is unknown. There is a benefit, though, in understanding the possible causes of Crohn's disease and how they interact with one another. Doing so can help one better understand the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of Crohn's disease.
Scientists believe that Crohn's disease is caused by a combination of these factors:
Immune system problems
Cohen JL, et al. (2005). Practice parameters for the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 48(11): 1997-2009. Available online: http://www.fascrs.org/physicians/practice_parameters.
Cima RR, Pemberton JH (2006). Ileostomy, colostomy, and pouches. In M Feldman et al., eds., Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 8th ed., vol. 2, pp.
2549-2561. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.
Primary Medical Reviewer
Kathleen Romito, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer
Arvydas D. Vanagunas, MD - Gastroenterology
October 7, 2010
WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise
October 07, 2010
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