Doctors don’t know for sure what causes irritable bowel syndrome, but some things seem to make people more likely to have it than others. These risk factors for IBS include:
Being a woman. About twice as many women as men have the condition. It’s not clear why, but some researchers think the changing hormones in the menstrual cycle may have something to do with it.
Age. IBS can affect people of all ages, but it's more likely for people in their teens through their 40s.
Galactans: Legumes, such as beans, lentils, and soybeans
Polyols: Sugar alcohols and fruits that have pits or seeds, such as apples, avocados, cherries, figs, peaches, or plums
Avoiding FODMAPs doesn’t help everyone. But in a study published in the journal Gastroenterology, about 3 out of 4 people with IBS had their symptoms ease right away after starting a low-FODMAP diet and felt the most relief after 7 days or more on the plan.
Remember, FODMAPs aren't bad. Many foods that are rich in them encourage the growth of good bacteria in the gut.
Trying a Low-FODMAP Diet
If you have gas, bloating, belly pain, diarrhea, or constipation, you might consider nixing all five forms of FODMAP carbs (lactose, fructose, fructans, sugar alcohols, and galactans) for up to 4 weeks to see if that helps. If FODMAPs are the culprit, you’ll probably start to feel better quickly.
You'll have many foods you can eat on this diet, but there's a steep learning curve about which foods are high in FODMAPs and what you could choose instead.
There are many other foods on the high and low lists. So it's a good idea to work with a gastroenterologist and a dietitian who can help you limit FODMAPs with a balanced diet that meets all your nutritional needs.