Black lung disease is a common name for any lung disease that develops from
inhaling coal dust. This name comes from the fact that those with the disease
have lungs that look black instead of pink. Medically, it is a type of
pneumoconiosis called coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP).
There are two forms: simple CWP
and complicated CWP, which also involves progressive massive fibrosis
Lung diseases are some of the most common medical conditions in the world. Tens of millions of people suffer from lung disease in the U.S. Smoking, infections, and genetics are responsible for most lung diseases.
The lungs are part of a complex apparatus, expanding and relaxing thousands of times each day to bring in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. Lung disease can result from problems in any part of this system.
The inhalation and accumulation of coal dust causes coal workers'
pneumoconiosis (CWP). This stems from working in a coal mine, coal trimming
(loading and stowing coal for storage), mining or milling graphite, and
manufacturing carbon electrodes (used in certain types of large furnaces) and
carbon black (a compound used in many items, such as tires and other rubber
goods). Because CWP is a reaction to accumulated dust in the lungs, it may
appear and get worse during your exposure to the dust or after your exposure
The severity of CWP depends on the type of coal dust, how much dust was in the air, and how long you have been exposed to it.
Is CWP the same thing as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?
CWP starts with the inhalation and accumulation of coal dust in the
lungs. For many, there are no symptoms or noticeable effect on quality of life.
There may be a cough and sputum (mucus) from inhalation of coal dust, but this
may be more a matter of dust-induced bronchitis. As CWP progresses and is complicated by
PMF, a cough and shortness of breath develop, along with sputum and moderate to
severe airway obstruction. Quality of life decreases. Complications of CWP
Smoking does not increase
the prevalence of CWP, nor does it affect the development of CWP. But it may
add to lung damage and contribute to the development of COPD. Coal workers who
smoke are at much greater risk of developing COPD than nonsmoking coal